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History: Fiction or Science? Russia. Britain. Byzantium. Rome.

New Chronology Vol.IV

Dr Prof A.T.Fomenko

9782913621107
Mithec
Overview

Why Antiquity and Dark Ages were to be invented? By middle of XVI th century the prime political agenda of Europe that reached superiority in Sciences and Technologies, but was still inferior militarily to the Evil Empire of Eurasia, was to free Europe.

The consensual world history was manufactured in Europe in XVI-XIX centuries with political agenda of powers of that period on the basis of erroneous clerical chronology elaborated by Jesuits Joseph Justus Scaliger and Dionysius Petavius.

The concerted effort of European aristocracy, black and white catholic clergy, protestants, humanists and scientists in XV - XVII th centuries in creation and dissemination of fictional Ancient World served this agenda. The fictional Ancient World was created by representing events of XI-XVI centuries as ones that happened thousands years before according to the ancient sources they wrote by authorities they invented.

The European aristocracy, considerable part of which were fugitives from Byzantine and/or the inheritors of Eurasian warlords, supported the myth of Ancient World to justify its claims to countries they ruled.

The black and white catholic clergy, protestants developed and supported the myth of Ancient World to justify their claims of being more ancient and to separate themselves from eurasian orthodoxy in the countries ruled by European aristocracy.

The scientists supported the myth of Ancient World as safe cover for their heretic research that produced results contrarian to the tenets of Christianity. They justified their discoveries by authorities of ancient scientists they themselves invented and used as pseudonyms.

The humanists developed and supported the myth of Ancient World as convenient safe haven for their ideas that conflicted with Christianity and aristocracy. They disguised and justified their ideas on authorities of ancient authors of their own making and wrote under their glorious aliases.

Why, oh why the mainstream historians do not gratify prominent mathematician Doctor Fomenko with laurels, but call the riot police? For example, the English historians rage at the suggestion that the history of Ancient England was de facto a Byzantine import transplanted to the English soil by the fugitive Byzantine nobility.

As the sign of recognition of the special role of the English historians who consider themselves the true scribes of World History, the cover of the present book portrays Tintoretto's Jesus Christ crucified on the Big Ben.

The Russian historians brand it all as pseudoscience: because Dr Fomenko asserts that there was no such thing as the Tartar and Mongol invasion followed by over two centuries of slavery, providing a formidable body of documental evidence to prove his assertion.

The so-called 'Tartars and Mongols' were the actual ancestors of the modern Russians, living in a trilingual state with Arabic and Turkic spoken as freely as Russian. The ancient Russian state was governed by a double structure of civil and military authorities and the hordes were actually professional armies with a tradition of lifelong conscription (the recruitment being the so-called 'blood tax'). Their 'invasions' were punitive operations against the regions that attempted tax evasion.

Dr Prof Fomenko proves that official Russian history is a blatant forgery concocted by a host of German scholars brought to Russia by the usurper dynasty of the Romanovs. Their ascension to the throne was the result of conspiracy, so they charged these German imports historians with the noble mission of making Romanovs reign look legitimate.

CONTENTS

About the Authors

Overview of the seven volumes

From the Publishers

Also by Analoly T. Fomenko

Also by Gleb V. Nosovskiy

Part I: THE CHRONOLOGY OF RUSSIAN HISTORY

Foreword

Introduction

1. General considerations

2. Our conception in brief

3. The true identity of Mongolia and the Tartar and Mongol invasion. The Cossacks and the Golden Horde

4. Batu-Khan was known as the Great Prince

5. The Romanovs, the Zakharyins and the Yuryins. Their role in Russian chronography

Chapter 1: Russian chronicles and the Millerian-Romanovian version of Russian history

1. The first attempts to write down the history of the ancient Russia

1.1. The XVI-XVII century and the edict of Aleksey Mikhailovich

1.2. The XVIII century: Miller

1.3. Brief corollaries

2. Consensual version of Russian history and its genesis. The reasons why all the founders of the Russian historical school were foreign

3. The Radzivilovskaya chronicle from Königsberg as the primary source of the Povest Vremennyh Let

3.1. The origins of the chronicle’s most important copies

3.2. The numeration of the chronicle’s pages and the “bull’s head” watermark

4. Forged fragments of the Radzivilovskaya Letopis – the copy that served as basis for the Povest Vremennyh Let

4.1. Publications of the Radzivilovskaya Letopis

4.2. History of the copy known as the Radzivilovskaya Letopis

4.3. A description of the chronicle

4.4. Story of a forgery. The mysterious “extra” page in the Povest Vremennyh Let

4.5. Who could have planted a page with the “Norman” theory into the Povest Vremennyh Let?

4.6. How the “scientific” Norman theory got dethroned and declared antiscientific

4.7. Having planted a page into the chronicle, the hoaxer prepared space for another, soon to be “fortunately found”. The chronology page of the Radzivilovskaya Letopis

4.8. The “Academic Moscow Copy” of the Povest Vremennyh Let

4.9. Other signs of forgery in the Radzivilovskaya Letopis

4.10. What is the chronicle that served as the original for the Radzivilovskaya Chronicle, also known as the Königsberg chronicle?

4.11. Which city was the capital of the Polyane = Poles: Kiev or Smolensk?

4.12. The arrival of Peter in Königsberg

4.13. A brief summary of our analysis of the Radzivilovskaya Chronicle

5. Other chronicles that describe the epochs before the XIII century

6. The publication rate of the Russian chronicles remains the same as time goes on

7. The traditional scheme of the ancient Russian history

7.1. The first period: from times immemorial to the middle of the IX century A.D.

7.2. The second period: from the middle of the IX century to the middle of the XII – the Kiev Russia starting with Ryurik and ending with Yuri Dolgoroukiy (of Rostov)

7.3. The third period: the Russia of Vladimir and Suzdal, starting with the middle of the XII century and ending with Batu-Khan’s conquest in 1237

7.4. The fourth period: the yoke of the Tartars and the Mongols, starting with the battle of Sit in 1238 and ending with the 1481 “Ougra opposition”, which is considered to mark the “official end of the Great Yoke” nowadays

7.5. The fifth period: the Moscow Russia starting with Ivan III and ending with the Great Strife, or the enthronement of the Romanovs in 1613

7.6. The sixth period: dynasty of the Romanovs

Chapter 2: The two chronological shifts inherent in the history of Russia

1. A general scheme of the parallelism

2. A brief description of the 100-year shift manifest in Russian history

3. A 400-year shift in Russian history and the resulting dynastic parallelism

Chapter 3: Our hypothesis

1. Russia and the Horde

1.1. Different points of view

1.2. Our hypothesis formulated in brief

2. The origins of the Mongols and the Tartars

2.1. Ethnic composition of the Mongolian troops

2.2. How many Mongols were there? Mongols as seen by contemporaries. Mongolian and Russian attire of the epoch under study

3. The “Tartar and Mongol conquest” and the Orthodox Church

4. Cossacks and the Horde

4.1. The Cossacks were the regular army of Russia (Horde)

4.2. Why the Muscovite rulers were accompanied by the “Tartars” rather then armies in military campaigns. The Tartars from Poland and Lithuania

5. The real identity of the Horde

6. On the conquest of Siberia

7. A general remark concerning the word “Cossack”

8. Tartar names and Russian names in old Russia

8.1. Tartar nicknames

8.2. The “strange” effect of the Mongolian conquest on the Russian culture

8.3. Russian and Tartar names illustrated by the Verderevskiy family tree

9. The real identity of the Mongolian language

9.1. How many Mongolian texts are there in existence?

9.2. What language were the famous Khan’s yarlyks (decrees, in particular – documents certifying the Princes’ rights to their domains) written in?

9.3. In re the Russian and the Tartar letters

9.4. History of the Mongols and the chronology of its creation

10. Gog and Magog. Chief Prince of Rosh, Meshech and Tubal. Russia-Horde and Moscow Russia on the pages of the Bible

11. The real location of Novgorod the Great

11.1. What we know about the city of Novgorod (the Great)

11.2. Our hypothesis about Yaroslavl being the historical Novgorod the Great

11.2.1. Why the traditional identification of the Old Russian capital (Novgorod the Great) as the modern town of Novgorod on the Volkhov is seen as dubious

11.2.2. Yaroslavl as an ancient trading centre. The Molozhskaya fair

11.2.3. Novgorod and Holmgrad

11.2.4. Yaroslav’s Court as the court of a Great Prince

11.2.5. How Nizhniy Novgorod had received its name

11.2.6. The Yaroslavl Region as the domain of the Great Prince

11.2.7. “Gospodin Velikiy Novgorod” (“Lord Novgorod the Great”) as the agglomeration of towns and cities in the Yaroslavl region

11.2.8. The famous Icon of Novgorod and the Icon of Yaroslavl

12. The falsification of history and archaeology of Novgorod-upon-Volkhov

12.1. The real chronology implied by the “layer section” of the pavements in Novgorod-upon-Volkhov

12.2. Novgorod-upon-Volkhov had also been known as “okolotok” (Russian word used for a parochial settlement)

12.3. The tourist sights presented as the famous “Sovereign’s Court”, where the Archbishop of Novgorod the Great had resided

12.4. Novgorod-upon-Volkhov: oddities in occupation layer datings

12.5. Birch bark documents had been used by the “ancient” Romans, and therefore cannot predate the XIV century

12.6. In re the “Novgorod Datings” of A. A. Zaliznyak and V. L. Yanin. How the abovementioned Academicians date late XVIII century birch bark documents to the XI century

12.7. Historians’ response to our article on the Novgorod datings of A. A. Zaliznyak and V. L. Yanin

13. A hypothesis about the etymology of the word “Russia” (“Rouss”)

Chapter 4: Ancient Russia as seen by contemporaries

1. Abul-Feda claimed the Russians to be “a people of Turkish origin”

2. Russia and Turkey

3. What one sees on the famous Arab map by Al-Idrisi from mediaeval Spain

4. Greater Russia as the Golden Horde, Lesser Russia as the Blue Horde, and Byelorussia as the White Horde

5. The beginning of the Tartar and Mongol invasion as described by contemporaries

6. Amazons in the XVII century Russia. Russian women wearing yashmaks .

Chapter 5: Our reconstruction of the Russian history before the battle of Kulikovo

1. The origins of the Russian history

2. The invasion of the Tartars and the Mongols as the unification of Russia under the rule of the Novgorod = Yaroslavl dynasty of Georgiy = Genghis-Khan and then his brother Yaroslav = Batu-Khan = Ivan Kalita

2.1. Genghis-Khan = Georgiy = Ryurik

2.1.1. His original in the XIV century is Youri = Georgiy Danilovich of Moscow

2.1.2. The identity of Ryurik, the founder of the royal dynasty of the Russian princes, the dating of his lifetime and the localization of his endeavours

2.1.3. The fastest and most comfortable way from Greece to Rome, and the location of the famous “Graeco-Varangian Route”

2.1.4. The three brothers: Ryurik, Sineus and Truvor. The division of the Russo-Mongolian Horde into the Golden Horde, the White Horde and the Blue Horde in the XIV century

2.1.5. The hypothesis about the origins of the Muslim era of Hegira

2.2. Batu-Khan identified as Yaroslav, his XIV century original being Ivan Danilovich Kalita = Caliph

2.2.1. A brief biography

2.2.2. An attempt of transferring the capital to Kiev

2.2.3. The battle between Batu-Khan and the Hungarian king with his allies

2.2.4. The Battle of Kalka fought between the “Mongols”, or the Russians, and the “Russians”, or the Poles

2.3. The “Mongol and Tartar invasion” according to the Russian chronicles: Russians fighting Russians

3. The Tartar and Mongol yoke in Russia as the period of military rule in the united Russian Empire

3.1. The difference between our version and the Millerian-Romanovian

3.2. Alexander Nevskiy = Berke-Khan. His original: Simeon the Proud or Chanibek-Khan (the XIV century)

3.3. The Sarays as the headquarters of the Great Princes, or Khans

3.4. Imperial communications

3.5. The Mongols as participants of the XIV century crusades

Chapter 6: The Battle of Kulikovo

1. The strife of the late XIV century in the Horde. Dmitriy Donskoi as Tokhtamysh-Khan. The Battle of Kulikovo and the “Conquest of Moscow”. A general overview

2. The Battle of Kulikovo

2.1 The actual location of the Kulikovo field

2.2. Kulishki in Moscow and the Church of All Saints built in honour of the warriors slain in the Battle of Kulikovo on the Slavyanskaya Square in Moscow

2.3. The information about the Battle of Kulikovo: origins and present condition

2.4. Mamai’s headquarters on the Krasniy Kholm (Red Hill) near the Kulikovo Field vs. the Krasniy Kholm, Krasnokholmskiy Bridge and Krasnokholmskaya Embankment in Moscow

2.5. Kuzmina Gat in the Battle of Kulikovo and the neighbourhood of Kuzminki in Moscow

2.6. The identification of Kolomna as the starting point of Dmitriy’s march towards the Kulikovo Field

2.7. The Kotly from the Kulikovo Battle and the Kotly in Moscow

2.8. The inspection before the battle at the Devichye Field, near the Devichiy Monastery, and the Novodevichiy Monastery on the Devichye Field in Russia

2.9. The Devichiy Monastery, the Babiy Gorodok and the Polyanka on the right bank of the Moskva and the possibility of identifying them as the Devichye Field and the place where Dmitriy Donskoi had inspected his troops

2.10. The crossing of the Moskva

2.11. The Berezouy and the Bersenyevskaya Embankment in Moscow

2.12. The River Don and its relation to the Battle of Kulikovo. The Podonskoye Yard in Moscow

2.13. River Mecha on the Kulikovo Field as the Moskva River (or, alternatively, one of its tributaries called Mocha)

2.14. River Nepryadva on the Kulikovo Field and the Naprudnaya River on the Kulishki field in Moscow. River Neglinka in Moscow

2.15. The ambush of Vladimir Andreyevich on the Kulikovo Field and the Vladimirskaya Church in Moscow

2.16. “River Chura at Mikhailov” next to the Kulikovo Field vs River Chura and the eight Mikhailovskiy Lanes in Moscow

2.17. River Sosna and the Brasheva (Borovitskaya) Road to the Kulikovo Field identified as the Sosenka River and the Old Borovskaya Road leading towards the centre of Moscow

2.18. Yaroslav and Alexander in the description of the Kulikovo Battle

2.19. Who had fought whom upon the Kulikovo field?

2.20. A brief digression and a comparison of the Russian and Tartar architecture

3. The communal grave of the heroes slain in the Battle of Kulikovo in the Old Simonov Monastery, Moscow

3.1. Where are the graves of the warriors who had fallen in the battle of Kulikovo?

3.2. The old Simonov Monastery presently. The discovery of an ancient communal grave in 1994

3.3. The location of the Rozhestveno village that Dmitriy Donskoi had granted to the Old Simonov monastery after the Battle of Kulikovo

3.4. The battle between Mamai and Tokhtamysh in 1380 as yet another reflection of the Kulikovo Battle of 1380

4. The Battle of Kulikovo and our geographical reconstruction thereof

5. Apparently, Moscow was founded around 1382. The “Battle of Moscow” allegedly fought between the Russians and the Tartars in 1382 as yet another reflection of the Kulikovo Battle

6. Tokhta-Khan and the military leader Nogai as duplicates of Tokhtamysh-Khan and the warlord Mamai

7. The capital of Dmitriy Donskoi = Tokhtamysh-Khan and its location before the Battle of Kulikovo

8. On the history of the Church of Our Lady’s Nativity, which is part of the Old Simonov monastery

9. Mamai the temnik is also known to us as Ivan Velyaminov the tysyatskiy. Both titles correspond to the rank of army commander, and translate as “leader of thousands”

10. The Battle of Kulikovo recorded in the famous book of Marco Polo

11. Other places in Moscow related to the Battle of Kulikovo in one way or another

11.1. Seven churches on the Kulikovo Field, or the Kulishki in Moscow

11.2. Mass burials at Kulishki in the centre of Moscow

11.3. The Andronikov Monastery and the Battle of Kulikovo

11.4. The modern Dmitriy Donskoi memorial at the foot of the Red (Krasniy) or Taganskiy Hill in Moscow

12. The Battle of Kulikovo on an XVII century icon

13. A brief history of coinage in Moscow

14. The history of the Donskoi Monastery in Moscow and the parallels with the Battle of Kulikovo on the territory of modern Moscow (By T. N. Fomenko)

14.1. The battle against the “Tartar” Kazy-Girey in the XVI century, the Donskoi Monastery and the icon of Our Lady of Don

14.2. The true datings of the presumably ancient plans of Moscow that are said to date from the XVI-XVII century nowadays

14.3. Additional remarks in re the Battle of Kulikovo

14.4. The origins of the name Mikhailovo at River Chura in Moscow

14.5. The Grebnyovskaya Icon given to Dmitriy Donskoi, and River Chura in Moscow

Chapter 7: From the Battle of Kulikovo to Ivan the Terrible

1. The capture of Moscow by Dmitriy = Tokhtamysh in 1382 and the naissance of Moscovia as a state

2. The identity of Lithuania and the location of Siberia

3. The parallel between Russian and Lithuanian history

4. Russia (aka The Horde) in the first half of the XV century. Epoch of strife and embroilment

5. Ivan III

5.1. Russian principalities united under the rule of Moscow during the reign of Ivan III. The end of the strife

5.2. The Turks and the Russians seizing Constantinople in 1453. Moscow and its alias of “The Third Rome”

5.3. The marriage between Ivan III and Sophia Palaiologos and a change of customs at the court of Moscow

6. Vassily III as the Sovereign of All Russia

7. The seals of the Great Princes (or Khans) in the XV-XVII century

Chapter 8: The epoch of Ivan the Terrible. The origins of Russian history, its authors and their methods

1. The Great Strife as a collision between two dynasties. The end of the Horde and the beginning of the Romanovian reign

2. Surviving original documents dating from the epoch of Ivan the Terrible

3. Oddities in the traditional version of the biography of Ivan the Terrible

4. The Great Strife of the XVI-XVII century as the epoch of the struggle between the Old Russian (Mongolian) Horde dynasty and the new Western dynasty of the Romanovs. The end of the Russo-Mongolian Horde in the XVII century

5. The “reign of Ivan the Terrible” in our reconstruction

5.1. Ivan IV Vassilyevich as the first Czar of “Ivan’s epoch”, regnant in 1547-1553

5.2. The infant Dmitriy Ivanovich as the second Czar from the period of “Ivan the Terrible” regnant in 1553-1563. The de facto reign of the elected council

5.3. The “third period of Ivan the Terrible” as the reign of the infant Ivan Ivanovich in 1563-1572. The Zakharyins (Romanovs) and their ascension to power. The repressions and the Oprichnina

5.4. Simeon Beckboulatovich regnant in 1572-1584 as the “fourth period of Ivan the Terrible”

5.5. The famous synodical of “Ivan the Terrible” as repentance for the young Czar Ivan Ivanovich

6. The creation of the Litsevoy Svod and its dating

7. In re the numerous wives of Ivan the Terrible

Chapter 9: The Great Strife in Russian history of the XVII century

1. The period between the death of “Ivan the Terrible”, also known as Simeon, and the Great Strife

2. Czar Boris Fyodorovich “Godunov”

2.1. Czar Boris Fyodorovich is most likely to have been the son of Czar Fyodor Ivanovich

2.2. Our hypothesis about Boris “Godunov” being the son of Czar Fyodor is confirmed by the old documents

2.3. The reasons why the Romanovs had distorted the history of Boris Godunov

2.4. The legal heir of Czar Fyodor Ivanovich

2.5. Could Czar Boris “Godunov” have been a son of Fyodor Ivanovich, a minor landlord?

2.6. The role of Boris “Godunov” during the reign of Czar Ivan and Czar Fyodor

2.7. The famous legend about the “lengthy pleas for Boris to ascend the throne” as a political myth that dates from the epoch of the Romanovs

2.8. The age of Czar Boris at the time of his demise

3. The Great Strife. Czar Dmitriy Ivanovich, also known as Lzhedmitriy – the false Dmitriy

3.1. The unsolved enigma of the Russian history

3.2. The boyar plot against Czar Boris

3.3. The “false Dmitriy” as the real Prince Dmitriy, son of Czar Ivan

3.4. The Romanovs as the authors of the version that claimed Dmitriy to have been an impostor

3.5. The plot of the boyars and the murder of Czar Dmitriy, known as “Lzhedmitriy the First”

3.6. The reasons for the cremation of the “false Dmitriy’s” body

3.7. “Lzhedmitriy II” as Czar Dmitriy, also known as “Lzhedmitriy I”

4. The war against Stepan Timofeyevich Razin and the victory of the Romanovs

5. The destruction of the old imperial books of ranks by the Romanovs and the creation of false genealogical documents to replace them

Chapter 10: Russia and Turkey as two parts of a formerly united empire

1. Introduction

2. Crescent with a cross or a star on the old coats of arms of the Russian cities

3. The Russo-Turkish title of the Muscovite Czar written inside a triple circle

4. The Ouspenskiy monastery in the Crimea. Do we interpret the history of the Crimean Khans correctly?

5. How the Turks had called their scimitars

Chapter 11: The identity of Tamerlane (Timur), the famous conqueror

1. Introduction

2. The physical appearance of Timur reconstructed by Gerasimov from the skull found in his grave. Could Timur have been European?

3. Arabian names in Russian history

4. Temir (Tamerlane) and Mehmet (Mohammed) II

5. Temir = Tamerlane = Mohammed II as the prototype of Alexander the Great

6. The history of Alexander’s campaigns: the time and the purpose of its creation

7. Tamerlane and Alexis Comnenus

8. The meaning of the name Timur

9. The wars between Timur and Tokhtamysh

10. The cities of Samara and Samarqand

11. The Nogai Horde

12. The Goths and the Semirechye region

13. Events of the epoch of Mehmet II (the XV century) reflected in the biography of Tamerlane (the XIV century)

13.1. Mehmet = Mohammed II

13.2. The city of Samarqand, the capital of Timur, as described in the chronicles that relate the XV century events, and its true identity

13.3. Sultan Mehmet-Khan identified as Sultan Mehmet II. Who could have taken Bayazid captive?

14. The organisation of Timur’s army. Had his Horde really been “wild”?

15. The issue of Tamerlane’s religion

16. The burial of Timur

17. The customs of Timur’s court

18. Tamerlane and Ivan III

19. Conclusion

Chapter 12: The war of 1773-1775 fought between the Romanovs and Pougachev as the last war fought against the Horde. The division of the remaining territories between the Romanovs and the nascent United States of America

1. Map of the world as envisioned by the authors of the Encyclopaedia Britannica in the late XVIII century

1.1. The map of Europe as drawn in a copy of the Encyclopaedia Britannica dating from 1771

1.2. The map of Asia as drawn in a copy of the Encyclopaedia Britannica dating from 1771

1.3. The map of Africa as drawn in a copy of the Encyclopaedia Britannica dating from 1771

1.4. The map of North America as drawn in a copy of the Encyclopaedia Britannica dating from 1771

1.5. The Muscovite Tartary of the XVIII century with its capital in Tobolsk

2. The war against Pougachev as the last war against the Horde. Muscovite Tartary divided between the Romanovs and the United States, the former claiming Siberia and the latter, half of the North American continent. The naissance of the USA in 1776

2.1. The great divide and its concealment from history

2.1.1. Muscovite Tartary

2.1.2. The war between the Romanovs and “Pougachev” as the war against the enormous Muscovite Tartary

2.2. North America on the maps of the XVII-XVIII century. The Europeans had remained ignorant of the geography of the American West and Southwest until the defeat of “Pougachev”. The gigantic terra incognita and the “insular” nature of the Californian peninsula

2.3. North America on the maps presumably dating from the XV-XVI century. The latter contain more correct information about America than the maps that are supposed to postdate them

2.4. The war against Pougachev in the Romanovian rendition. The futile attempts of A. S. Pushkin to get access to the archives that contained historical materials pertaining to the “War against Pougachev”

2.5. Rapid expansion of the territory governed by the Romanovs after their victory over “Pougachev”

2.6. Novaya Zemlya depicted correctly on earlier maps (as an island) and incorrectly on some of the later ones (as a peninsula)

2.7. The formation of the United States in 1776 and the annexation of the American territories of the Muscovite Tartary

2.8. The information contained in the old maps of America

3. The voyage taken by A. S. Pushkin to the Ural region in 1833 with the objective of collecting more information for Pougachev’s biography.The reason why Pougachev’s soldiers had referred to their headquarters as to “Moscow”

4. Numerous towns in the Ural, allegedly founded in the Bronze Age (Arkaim being the most famous) as the likely relics of Muscovite Tartary, or the state that had existed in Siberia and America in the XV-XVIII century A.D.

5. The conquest of Siberia after the victory over “Pougachev” and the trace that it has left in the numismatic history of Russia

Chapter 13: Old Russia as a bilingual state with Russian and Turkic as two official languages. Letters considered Arabic nowadays were used for transcribing Russian words

1. Arabic inscriptions upon Russian weapons

1.1. Why would Nikita Davydov, a Russian craftsman, decorate the royal helmet with Arabic inscriptions?

1.2. The reason why Alexander Nevskiy and Ivan the Terrible wore helmets with Arabic writing. The famous “Arabic conquest of the world” as it happened in reality

2. Arabic text upon the Russian mitre of Princes Mstislavskiy

3. The word “Allah” as used by the Russian Church in the XVI and even the XVII century, alongside the quotations from the Koran

3.1. “The Voyage beyond the Three Seas” by Afanasiy Nikitin

3.2. Authentic Old Russian attire dating from the XVII century and decorated with lettering in three scripts – Cyrillic, Arabic and a “mystery script” that defies interpretation today

4. Occasional use of Arabic script in Russian texts in the relatively recent epoch of the XVII century. Travel diaries of Paul of Aleppo

5. Arabic numerals as derived from the alphanumeric symbols of the Slavs and the Greeks in the XV-XVI century A.D.

5.1. The invention of positional notation: when did it happen?

5.2. The origins of the Arabic numerals used for positional notation

5.3. Conspicuous traces of sixes fashioned into fives found in the old documents

5.4. XVII century alterations introduced into the old datings

6. Russian alphabet before the XVII century. The poorly legible inscription on the church-bell of Zvenigorod declared a “cryptogram”

7. European writing before the XVII century. The so-called “European cryptograms”

Chapter14: Various data

1. More in re the identification of Yaroslavl as the historical Novgorod the Great

1.1. River Volga and River Volkhov

1.2. Excerpts from the history of Yaroslavl

1.3. The possible location of the famous library formerly owned by “Ivan the Terrible”

2. The identity of the Kagans

3. The Horde as the Cossack council (Rada)

4. Kiev as the capital of the Goths

5. The destruction of inscriptions on the Old Russian relics

5.1. The tomb of Yaroslav the Wise in the Cathedral of St. Sophia in Kiev

5.2. The monasteries of Staro-Simonov and Bogoyavlenskiy in Moscow

5.3. Why would the Romanovs need to chisel off the frescoes and put layers of bricks over the old Czars’ tombs in the cathedrals of the Kremlin?

6. The fake sarcophagi of the pre-Romanovian Czarinas made by the Romanovs in the XVII century

7. In the second part of the XVII century the Romanovs removed old headstones from the Russian cemeteries and either destroyed them or used them as construction material. The excavations of 1999-2000 conducted in the Louzhetskiy monastery of Mozhaysk

8. Geography according to a map of Great Tartary that dates from 1670

9. A. I. Soulakadzev and his famous collection of books and chronicles

10. The name of the victor in the battle of 1241 between the Tartars and the Czechs

11. The location of Mongolia as visited by the famous traveller Plano Carpini

11.1. The “correct” book of Carpini as we have at our disposal today versus the “incorrect” book, which has vanished mysteriously

11.2. The return route of Carpini

11.3. The geography of Mongolia according to Carpini

11.4. In re the name of the Tartars

11.5. Mongolian climate

11.6. The Imperial Mongolian graveyard

11.7. The second graveyard of the Mongols

11.8. Cannons in the army of Presbyter Johannes

11.9. The language of the Mongols

11.10. The real nature of the Mongolian tents, presumed to have made of red and white felt

11.11. The throne of the Mongolian Emperor

11.12. The priests from the entourage of the Mongolian Emperor

11.13. The Mongolian worship of Genghis-Khans effigy

12. Notes of a mediaeval Turkish janissary written in the Cyrillic script

13. The crypt of the Godunovs in the Troitse-Sergiev Monastery. The Ipatyevskiy monastery in Kostroma

14. The modern location of Astrakhan differs from that of the old Tartar Astrakhan, which the Romanovs appear to have razed out of existence

15. The reasons why the Romanovian administration would have to destroy hundreds of maps compiled by the Russian cartographer Ivan Kirillov

16. Braids worn by all inhabitants of Novgorod regardless of sex

17. The testament of Peter the Great

18. The foundation of most modern European capitals: a chronology

18.1. Our reconstruction: most of the modern Eurasian capitals were founded after the Great = “Mongolian” conquest of the XIV century

18.2. A most noteworthy mediaeval table of distances between Moscow and various capitals

18.3. The European capital circle and its centre

19. How the figure of St. George ended up on the coat of arms of Russia

20. The real meaning of the inscriptions on the old “Mongolian” coat of arms of Russia. How the Romanovs had attempted to conceal this

20.1. What we know about the history of the Russian national coat of arms

20.2. The national coat of arms of the Russian Empire, or the Horde, in the XVI century

20.3. The Great Perm as mentioned in the Russian Chronicles and drawn on the Russian coat of arms dating from the XVI century. The real location of Perm

20.4. The land of Vyatka as described in the Russian chronicles and represented on the XVI century coat of arms of the Horde. The real location of Vyatka

20.5. Tver as reflected in the Russian chronicles and represented in the Russian coat of arms in the XVI century

20.6. Pskov = Pleskov = Prussia on the coat of arms of Russia, or the Horde, in the XVI century

20.7. The disposition of the twelve kingdoms (tribes) as seen on the XVI century Russian coat of arms in the geographical maps of Europe

20.8. The Romanovian coat of arms from Korb’s diary

20.9. The British Isles = England or the Isle of Crete as the Cantian island on the coat of arms of Russia, or the Horde

20.10. Obdora in the Russian coat of arms and the “ancient” Abdera in Betica, Spain

20.11. The mysterious Oudoran principality on the Russian coat of arms and River Odra in Germany

20.12. Our reconstruction

21. The old coat of arms of Yaroslavl depicting a bear holding a Cossack pole topped by an Ottoman crescent. These poles were considered a symbol of power all across Europe up until the XVII century

22. The “ancient Olympus” and Russia as the Horde in the XIV-XVI century

22.1. Kronos and other Olympian deities of the Western Europe

22.2. The name Irina reflected in the historical toponymy of the Great = “Mongolian” Empire

23. World history according to some German authors of the XVII-XVIII century. The book of Johannes Heinrich Driemel

24. The imperial bicephalous eagle and the possible origins of the symbol

25. The genealogy of the Great Princes of Moscow as re-written in the XVII century

26. The baptism of Russia

27. How the Romanovian falsification of documents was reflected in the history of Russian handwriting

28. An example of an obviously counterfeited Russian historical document – a royal decree of Ivan the Terrible

29. Despite all their attempts, historians never managed to conceal the fact that the Muscovite Czars had worn the title of a Great Emperor

30. The reaction of the Russian nobility to the introduction of the Scaligerian version of the “ancient” history in the XVIII century

31. Vehement opposition encountered by the proponents of Romanovian and Millerian history in the XVIII century. Lomonosov and Miller

32. Lomonosov’s “History of Russia”: authenticity issue. Lomonosov or Miller? (By A. T. Fomenko, N. S. Kellin and G. V. Nosovskiy)

33. Foreign eyewitnesses of the XVI century located Novgorod the Great on River Volga

34. The Alexandrovskaya Sloboda as the capital of Russia, or the Horde, in the XVI century

35. The counterfeited inscription with the name of the monarch on the alleged portrait of Ivan the Terrible dating from the XVII century

36. Lettering on the neckpiece of a XVI century chasuble with a counterfeited name of a Russian Czar

37. Amazing Russian Biblical scenes on the XVI century frescoes, which have miraculously survived in the Pokrovskaya Church of the Alexandrovskaya Sloboda

38. The reason why the megalithic palaces and temples are more common for the southern countries than for those with a moderate climate

39. A cross with Slavic lettering received as a present from the Patriarch of Jerusalem by Charlemagne

40. Mediaeval French kings gave their oaths on a holy book in Church Slavonic

41. The famous Attila the Hun as a contemporary of the renowned Russian Prince Vladimir, according to the evidence of mediaeval German books. This is a virtual impossibility in Scaligerian chronology

42. The tugra as a sign of authenticity used in the royal documents of the Middle Ages

43. The “ancient” Achilles as the leader of the Myrmidons – or, according to the chronicler John Malalas, the leader of the Huns and the Bulgarians

44. The Russian terem and the Oriental harem as two different names of the same thing

45. Peculiar names in the old maps of Russia that contradict the Scaligerian version of history

46. The Russian subbotniki sect had been of the opinion that the Biblical Assyria, Egypt and Babylon identified as the mediaeval Russia

47. The old cathedrals of the Western Europe have preserved the style of the XV-XVI century Russian churches

48. The organs of the Western European cathedrals have preserved the ancient musical culture of the XV-XVI century Russia, or the Horde

Part II: NEW CHRONOLOGY AND CONCEPTION OF BRITISH HISTORY. ENGLAND AND RUSSIA (OR THE HORDE)

Introduction

Chapter 15: A brief scheme of the English history in its Scaligerian version

1. The oldest English chronicles

1.1. The Anglo-Saxon chronicle

1.2. “History of the Brits” by Nennius

1.3. “Historia Britonum” by Galfridus Monmutensis

1.4. Several other “ancient” English chronicles

1.5. The names of the cities, ethnic groups and countries known to us today as reflected in mediaeval English chronicles

2. The Scaligerian chronology of British history . 576 2.1. Scotland and England: two parallel dynastic currents

2.2. English history of the alleged years 1-445 A.D. England as a Roman colony

2.3. The epoch between the alleged years 445 and 830 A.D. Six kingdoms and their unification

2.4. The epoch of the alleged years 830-1040 A.D. ends with the Danish conquest and the decline of the Danish Empire

2.5. The epoch of the alleged years 1040-1066 A.D. The rule of the old Anglo-Saxon dynasty and its end

2.6. The epoch between the alleged years 1066 and 1327 A.D. The Norman dynasty followed by the dynasty of Anjou. The two Edwards

2.7. The epoch between 1327 and 1602

Chapter 16: Parallels between the history of England and Byzantium, Rome and the Horde

1. A rough comparison of the dynastic currents of England and Rome (Byzantium)

2. The dynastic parallelism between the history of England and Byzantium. A general superimposition scheme of the two

3. The dynastic parallelism table

3.1. The English history of the alleged years 640-830 A.D. and the Byzantine history of the alleged years 378-553 A.D. as reflections of the same late mediaeval original. A shift of 275 years

3.2. English history of the alleged years 830-1040 A.D. and the Byzantine history of the alleged years 553-830 A.D. as two reflections of the same late mediaeval original. A shift of 275 years

3.3. English history of 1040-1327 A.D. and Byzantine history of 1143-1453 A.D. A shift of 120 years

3.4. The end of the parallelism. The conquest of Constantinople by the Ottomans in 1453. The fall of Byzantium

Chapter 17: The abbreviation and saturation of English history

1. Our conception of the English history

2. How Byzantine and “Mongolian” chronicles became part of the English history

Chapter 18: Despite the attempts of the XVII-XVIII century hoaxers, English chronicles retain a great deal of information concerning the real events of the XI-XVI century. England and Russia, or the Horde

1. The “ancient” Roman consul Brutus as the first Roman conqueror of Britain
and simultaneously the first “ancient” Trojan king of the Brits

2. The “ancient” Brutus the Trojan from the English chronicles, the patriarch of the Brits, turns out to be a contemporary of Julius Caesar and Genghis-Khan, Conqueror of the World

3. Biblical events on the pages of the English chronicles

4. The location of the “ancient” Troy

5. The reason why Russia and Britain are both presumed to be insular states according to the English chronicles

6. The location of Britain conquered by Brutus. The itinerary of his fleet

7. Brutus has to fight against Gog and Magog during the conquest of Britain (aka the Tartars and Mongols or the Ten Tribes of Israel)

8. Julius Caesar found himself close to the Russian lands during the conquest of Britain, or Albania

9. The location of London in the X-XII century. The foundation of London in the British Isles as registered chronologically

10. The old coat of arms of London and the English Kingdom of East Saxons depicts the Ottoman scimitars (or crescents)

11. The identity of the Scots and Scotland in the XIII-XIV century. The names of Russia and Scotland appear in the mediaeval English maps around the XV-XVI century

12. The five primordial languages of the ancient Britain. The nations that spoke them and the territories they inhabited in the XI-XIV century

13. The location of the six initial British kingdoms: East Anglia, Kent, Sussex, Wessex, Essex and Mercia

14. The famous King Arthur as a legendary reflection of the Horde that had invaded the British Isles in the XIV-XVI century

15. William I the Conqueror and the Battle of Hastings dated to the alleged year 1066. The Fourth Crusade of 1204

15.1. A mutual superimposition of two famous wars in England and in Byzantium

15.2. The English version of William’s biography

15.3. The Conquest of Constantinople: Byzantine version

15.4. The parallelism between the events related in the English and the Byzantine chronicles

16. Mediaeval Russia, or the Horde, as reflected in later English chronicles. The identity of the Galatians, who had received an epistle of Paul the Apostle, and the dating of this event

17. The dating of the maps compiled by Matthew of Paris. The epoch when Scythia, or the Horde, became known as “the mother of dragons, the cradle of scorpions, the nest of snakes and the hotbed of demons”, and the reasons behind this reputation

Comments

Part III: THE CHRONOLOGY AND GENERAL CONCEPTION OF ROMAN AND BYZANTINE HISTORY

Chapter 19: The problem of reconstructing the veracious version of Roman history

1. The chronological structure of the modern “history textbook”

2. The problem of chronological result interpretation in the reconstruction of the true ancient history

3. The principle of the veracity of the “general concepts” as related in the ancient documents

3.1. Traces of the true history and the original chronological tradition

3.2. The mediaeval concept of three kingdoms put in a sequence

4. The geographic localisation principle as applied to the ancient historical events and based on the maps of the XVII-XVIII century

5. The principle of estimating the age of a given text by the time of its first mass publication

5.1. The epoch when a text was published in a large number of copies must be close to the epoch of said text’s creation

5.2. Comparing the respective ages of the New Testament and the Old

Chapter 20: The Great War, the Great Empire and the great crusades

1. World wars before the XVII century

1.1. The “Great Exodus” reflected ten or thirteen times in the Scaliger-Petavius history textbook

1.2. The first and oldest possible original of the great wars, or exoduses

1.3. The second possible original of the great wars, or exoduses

1.4. The third possible original of the great wars, or exoduses

1.5. The fourth possible original of the great wars, or exoduses

2. What we know about the XI century, or the epoch of Christ, today

2.1. Christ and the “Judean War” of Joseph Flavius

2.2. The first crusade. Alexandria in the XI century as the Old Rome in Egypt. Jerusalem = Troy = Ilion as Czar-Grad, or the New Rome

2.3. The transfer of the old imperial capital from Alexandria, or the Old Rome, to Czar-Grad = Jerusalem = Troy = in the XI century

2.4. The biography of Pope Hildebrand. The date when the Holy See was moved to Rome in Italy

2.5. Had the Italian city of Rome been a capital in the antiquity?

2.6. The Babylonian Kingdom replaced by the Greek

2.7. The beginning of the Christian era in the XII century as the dawn of the Greek Kingdom

3. A new point of view on a number of well-known concepts as suggested by our reconstruction

4. Jerusalem, Troy and Constantinople

5. Egyptian hieroglyphs and the Hebraic language

5.1. Geographical names were subject to flexibility before the invention of the printing press

5.2. Egyptian hieroglyphs of the XI-XVI century as the “Hebraic” language of the ecclesiastical tradition

5.3. The Hebraic, or Egyptian hieroglyphic script replaced by the Greek alphabet in the epoch of the XIII-XV century. The bilingual texts of Egypt

5.4. The reason why a great many inscriptions in Egyptian hieroglyphs remain beyond the attention scope of researchers and publishers

5.5. The forgotten meaning of the Church Slavonic word for “Jew” (“Yevrey”)

6. The Egyptian Alexandria as the old imperial capital

6.1. History of the XI-XII century: an approximated reconstruction

6.2. Alexandria as the centre of Greek science

6.3. Alexandria as the obvious capital

6.4. Several authors of the XVII century had believed the Egyptian pyramids to have been the sepulchres of Ptolemy = Israel and Alexander the Great

7. The wars fought for and around Constantinople (Jerusalem)

8. The division of empires. Israel and the Nicaean Empire, Judea and the Latin Empire

Chapter 21: Ecclesiastical history

1. History of religions

2. Christ from Antiochia

3. Reports of the XI century events as encountered in the Russian chronicles

4. Oriental versions of Christianity

5. The creation of the Biblical canon and its chronology

5.1. The esoteric history of the Biblical canons

5.2. Evangelical events reflected in the Old Testament

5.2.1. The Nicaean Council in the Old Testament

5.2.2. Christ and Elisha

The complete bibliography to the seven volumes

Author Bio
Fomenko, Anatoly Timofeevich. Born in 1945. Full Member (Academician) of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Full Member of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, Full Member of the International Higher Education Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Physics and Mathematics, Professor, Head of the Moscow State University Department of Mathematics and Mechanics. Solved the Plateau s Problem from the theory of minimal spectral surfaces. Author of the theory of invariants and topological classification of integrable Hamiltonian dynamic systems. Laureate of the 1996 National Premium in Mathematics of the Russian Federation for a cycle of works on the Hamiltonian dynamic system multitude invariance theory. Author of 180 scientific publications, 26 monographs and textbooks on mathematics, a specialist in geometry and topology, variational calculus, symplectic topology, Hamiltonian geometry and mechanics, computer geometry. Author of a number of books on the development of new empirico-statistical methods and their application to the analysis of historical chronicles as well as the chronology of antiquity and the Middle Ages.