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History: Fiction or Science? Astronomical methods as applied to chronology. Ptolemy’s Almagest. Tycho Brahe. Copernicus. The Egyptian zodiacs.

New Chronology Vol.III

Dr Prof A.T.Fomenko


Dr Prof Anatoly Fomenko and team dissect Almagest of ancient Ptolemy compiled allegedly in 150 a.d. and considered to be the corner stone of classical history. Their report states: Almagest was compiled in XVI-XVII cy from astronomical data of IX-XVI cy. As the King of astronomers Ptolemy is proven to be a medieval phantom, therefore standing aquitted of the crime he was accused by the late American astrophycist Robert Newton. Allegedly ancient Egyptian horoscopes painted in Pharaohs tombs of the Valley of Kings or cut in stone in Dendera and Esna for centuries considered impenetrable are decoded at last! All dates contained therein turn out definitely medieval and pertain to the XI cy a.d. the earliest. Well, how old is 'ancient' Egypt actually? Discover highly interesting angles, chunky facts and updates to the biographies of the famous medieval astronomers Tycho Brahe and Copernicus. Reading this book resembles a test flight to the distant past returning with a conclusion: the past is eventually both drastically closer and dramatically different from one taught in school. Fasten your seatbelts, please. The publishers will pay a 10,000 dollars USA in cash to the first person who will not only declare but prove consistently, with adequate methods and in sufficient detail on the same or better academic level that the New Chronology theory of Full member of the Russian Academy of Science Dr Prof Anatoly T. Fomenko, Head of the Chair of the Differential Geometry of MSU and his team is wrong in their dating of Almagest.


Overview of the seven volumes

About the Author

Also by Analoly T. Fomenko

From the Publishers

Foreword by A. T. Fomenko


by A. T. Fomenko, V. V. Kalashnikov, G. V. Nosovskiy


1. A brief description of the Almagest

2. A brief history of the Almagest

3. The principal star catalogues of the Middle Ages

4. The reason why the dating of the old star catalogues is an important issue

5. Hipparchus

6. Ptolemy

7. Copernicus

8. Tycho Brahe

9. Important research of the Almagest by the astronomer Robert Newton and his book entitled “The Crime of Claudius Ptolemy”

Chapter 1: Some necessary information related to astronomy and history of astronomy

1. The ecliptic. The equator. Precession

2. Equatorial and ecliptic coordinates

3. The Methods of measuring equatorial and ecliptic coordinates

4. The modern celestial sphere

5. “Reverse calculation” of objects’ positions on the celestial sphere. The formulae of Newcomb-Kinoshita

5.1. Necessary formulae

5.2. The algorithm for calculating past positions of stars

6. Astrometry. Ancient astronomical measurement instruments of the XV-XVII century

7. Timekeeping and timekeeping devices in mediaeval astronomical observations . 49

Chapter 2: A preliminary analysis of the Almagest star catalogue

1. The catalogue structure

2. The analysis of the distribution of reliably and poorly identifiable stars in the Almagest

3. Seven regions of the Almagest star atlas significantly differ from each other by the number of reliably identifiable stars

4. Possible distortion of the star coordinates resulting from the atmospheric refraction

5. The analysis of the informata distribution across the Almagest catalogue

6. The analysis of the coordinate versions as specified in different manuscripts of the Almagest catalogue. Comparison of the 26 primary manuscripts to the canonical version of the catalogue

7. Version density as the density of independent star observations. Seven areas of the Almagest star atlas revisited with a new concurrence with the previous results

8. In re the reliability of latitudinal and longitudinal measurements contained in the Almagest

8.1. According to Robert Newton, the longitudes in the Almagest were re-calculated by somebody; however, this suspicion does not arise insofar as their latitudes are concerned

8.2. Examples proving that the dating of the star catalogue by longitudinal precession often leads to great errors. Mediaeval catalogues are subject to becoming erroneously dated to an antediluvian epoch

9. The dubious nature of the traditional opinion that Ptolemy’s text implies actual “observations” on his part, as well as his ”personal participation” in the stellar measurements and observations described in the Almagest

10. What ecliptic point did Ptolemy use for longitudinal reference?

11. Peters’ sinusoid in Almagest latitudes . 94

Chapter 3: Unsuccessful attempts of dating the Almagest. Reasons for failure. Our new approach and a brief account of our results

1. The attempt to date the Almagest by a comparison to the calculated catalogues reflecting the motion of the fastest stars

1.1. The comparison of the Almagest catalogue to the calculated catalogues

1.2. The attempt of dating the Almagest catalogue by proper movements of individual stars

1.3. Why the dating of the Almagest by individual star movements gives us no reliable result

2. An attempt of dating the Almagest catalogue by the aggregate of fast and named stars as compared to the calculated catalogues

2.1. The criteria one is to adhere to in one’s choice of the stars for the purpose of dating

2.2. The “proximity interval” system as applied to certain fast or named stars

2.3. Dating the Almagest with the suggested method utilizing arc distances of individual stars is an impossibility

2.4. Dating the Almagest catalogue with the suggested method based on latitudinal discrepancies of individual stars also proves impossible

3. The attempt to date the Almagest catalogue by the motion of individual stars as compared to the objects in their immediate vicinity

3.1. The varying geometry of stellar configurations as seen against the background of “immobile stars”

3.2. The stars chosen for the experiment

3.3. The behaviour of the individual discrepancies and the average discrepancy

3.4. Negative experiment result

4. The analysis of several erroneous works on the subject of dating the Almagest by proper star motions

4.1. A lot of the errors are not produced by astronomical phenomena and stem from the incorrect application of the methods offered by mathematical statistics

4.2. The data in Y. N. Yefremov’s works on the dating of the Almagest were tailored to fit the desired result

4.3. A vicious circle in the dating of the Almagest by the movement of the star o2 Eri

4.4. Y. N. Yefremov’s errors in the precision estimation of dating the Almagest by Arcturus

4.5. Erroneous precision estimation of astronomical calculations: another example

4.6. The “secondary analysis” of the Almagest dating in the “Samoobrazovaniye” (“Autodidactics”) magazine

5. Conclusions and directions for further research. Our approach and a brief synopsis of our main results

5.1. The three problems one is confronted with: identifying the Almagest stars, defining the nature of possible errors, and analysing the precision of the catalogue

5.2. The identification of the Almagest stars

5.3. Various types of errors in the catalogue

5.4. The discovery of the systematic error in the Almagest catalogue. Its compensation confirms the correctness of the declared catalogue precision

5.5. The compensation of the systematic error discovered in the catalogue gives us an opportunity of dating the latter

5.6. The dating of the Almagest catalogue by the motion of its eight primary basis stars after the rectification of the statistically discovered catalogue error

5.7. The dating of the Almagest catalogue by the motions of its eight named basis stars by an independent geometrical method

Chapter 4: Who is who?

1. Preliminary observations

2. Formal search of the fastest stars in the Almagest catalogue

2.1. The star identification method

2.2. The result of identifying the “modern” stars as their counterparts from the Almagest catalogue

2.3. Corollaries

3. The search of all the fast stars reliably identifiable in the Almagest catalogue

Chapter 5: The analysis of the star catalogues’ systematic errors

0. Basic conception

0.1. A demonstrative analogy

0.2. The implementation of the method

0.3. The value of the systematic error cannot be used for the dating of the catalogue

1. Main definition

2. The parameterisation of group errors and systematic errors

3. Calculating parameters γ(t) and φ(t) with the method of minimal squares

4. Variation of the parameters γstat (t) and φstat (t) over the course of time

5. The statistical properties of the estimates of γstat and φstat

6. Corollaries

Chapter 6: Statistical and precision-related properties of the Almagest catalogue

1. Introductory remarks

2. Seven regions of the celestial sphere

2.1. A characteristic of the seven areas that we have discovered in the Almagest atlas

2.2. The disposition of the ecliptic poles for each of the seven regions of the Almagest star atlas

2.3. The calculation of confidence intervals

3. Our analysis of individual Almagest constellations

3.1. The compiler of the Almagest may have made a different error in case of every minor constellation group

3.2. The calculation of systematic errors for individual groups of constellations in the Almagest

3.3. Group errors for individual constellations from the well measured celestial region of the Almagest are virtually identical to the systematic error discovered as a characteristic of this area in general

3.4. How the compensation of the systematic error that we have discovered affects the precision characteristics of the environs of named stars

3.5. The discovery of a single systematic error made by the compiler of the Almagest for the region of ZodA and the majority of named stars

4. Corollaries

Chapter 7: The dating of the Almagest star catalogue. Statistical and geometrical methods

1. The catalogue’s informative kernel consists of the well-measured named stars

2. Preliminary considerations in re the dating of the Almagest catalogue by the variations in the coordinates of named stars

3. The statistical dating procedure

3.1. The description of the dating procedure

3.2. The dependency of the minimax discrepancy ∆ on t, γ and φ for the Almagest

3.3. Results of dating the Almagest catalogue statistically

3.4. The discussion of the result

4. Dating the Almagest catalogue by the expanded informative kernel

5. Dating the Almagest catalogue by a variety of 8-star configurations consisting of bright stars

6. The statistical procedure of dating the Almagest catalogue: stability analysis

6.1. The necessity of using variable algorithm values

6.2. Trust level variation

6.3. Reducing the contingent of the Almagest catalogue informative kernel

6.4. The exclusion of Arcturus does not affect the dating of the Almagest catalogue substantially

7. The geometrical dating of the Almagest

8. The stability of the geometrical dating method applied to the Almagest catalogue. The influence of various astronomical instrument errors on the dating result

8.1. Poorly-manufactured astronomical instruments may have impaired the measurement precision

8.2. Formulating the problem mathematically

8.3. The deformation of a sphere into an ellipsoid

8.4. Measurement discrepancies in the “ellipsoidal coordinate system”

8.5. Estimating the distortion of angles measured by the “marginally ellipsoidal instrument”

8.6. Possible distortion estimation and the stability of the resultant dating

8.7. Numerical value table for possible “ellipsoidal distortions”

8.8. Conclusions

9. Longitudinal behaviour of the named Almagest stars

10. The behaviour of arc discrepancies in the configuration comprised of the Almagest informative kernel

11. Conclusions

Chapter 8: Tilt angle between the ecliptic and the equator in the Almagest

1. Ptolemy’s concept of the ecliptic tilt angle value and systematic error γ

2. The Peters Zodiac and the sine curve of Peters

Chapter 9: The application of our method to the dating of other mediaeval catalogues

1. Introduction

2. Tycho Brahe’s catalogue

2.1. A general characteristic of Tycho Brahe’s catalogue and the result of our dating

2.2. The analysis of Tycho Brahe’s latitudinal errors and the removal of the “rejects”

2.3. The choice of the informative kernel for Tycho Brahe’s catalogue

2.4. The dating of Tycho Brahe’s observations

2.5. Conclusions

3. Ulugbek’s catalogue

3.1. A general characteristic of Ulugbek’s catalogue and its dating result

3.2. Systematic errors in Ulugbek’s catalogue

3.3. The choice of the informative kernel and the ∆ threshold. The dating of Ulugbek’s catalogue

3.4. Conclusions

4. The catalogue of Hevelius

4.1. The dependency between the catalogues of Tycho Brahe and Hevelius

4.2. Conclusions

5. The catalogue of Al-Sufi

Chapter 10: Additional considerations concerning the dating of the Almagest. Stellar coverings and lunar eclipses

by A. T. Fomenko, G. V. Nosovskiy

1. Introduction

2. Dating the planetary coverings of the stars. Calculations that involve average elements

3. The dating of the planetary star coverings described in the Almagest. A more precise calculation

3.1. The adjusted algorithm

3.2. The discussion of the mediaeval X-XI century solution

3.2.1. The η of Virgo covered by Venus in 960 A.D.

3.2.2. Mars covering the β of Scorpio in 959 A.D.

3.2.3. Jupiter covering the δ of Cancer in 994 A.D.

3.2.4. Saturn approaching the γ of Virgo in 1009 A.D.

3.2.5. The chronology of the Almagest according to the X-XI century solution

3.3. Discussing the late mediaeval solution of the XV-XVI century

3.3.1. The η of Virgo covered by Venus in 1496 A.D.

3.3.2. Mars covering the β of Scorpio in 1497 A.D.

3.3.3. Jupiter covering the δ of Cancer in 1528 A.D.

3.3.4. Saturn approaching the γ of Virgo in 1539 A.D.

3.3.5. Commentary to the late mediaeval solution

4. The era of Nabonassar in accordance with the late mediaeval solution

5. The dating of the Almagest’s creation and how this book assumed its present form. Ptolemy and Copernicus

6. The “ancient” Hipparchus as the apparent phantom reflection of Tycho Brahe, the famous astronomer

7. Ptolemy’s Almagest is most likely to have undergone its final edition already after the death of Tycho Brahe, or the “ancient” Hipparchus

8. According to Robert Newton, most of the lunar eclipses referred to in the Almagest happen to be relatively recent forgeries

Chapter 11: Other problems and hypotheses arising from the dating of the Almagest catalogue

by A. T. Fomenko, G. V. Nosovskiy

1. Certain auxiliary oddities of the Almagest

1.1. What coordinates was the Almagest catalogue compiled in initially?

1.2. The North Star as the first star of the Almagest catalogue

1.3. Oddities inherent in the Latin (allegedly 1537) and Greek (allegedly 1538) editions of the Almagest

1.4. The star charts of the Almagest

2. The Almagest and Halley’s discovery of proper star motions

3. The identity of the “ancient” Emperor Pius, in whose reign many of Ptolemy’s astronomical observations were performed. His geographical and chronological localisation

4. Scaligerian datings of the manuscripts and the printed editions of the Almagest

4.1. Greek manuscripts of the Almagest

4.2. Latin manuscripts of the Almagest

4.3. Arabic manuscripts of the Almagest

4.4. The first printed editions of the Almagest

4.5. Questions concerning the Scaligerian datings of the Almagest manuscripts

5. So what is the Almagest, anyway?

6. Oddities in the development of the astronomical science as portrayed in the “Scaligerian textbook”

6.1. The efflorescence of the so-called “ancient astronomy”

6.2. The beginning of the mysterious “decline of the ancient astronomy” in Scaligerian history

6.3. The alleged millenarian “return to infancy” and the primitive character of mediaeval astronomy

6.4. The astronomical boom of the Renaissance: original, not repetition

6.4.1. The astronomical “renaissance” of the Arabs

6.4.2. The astronomical “renaissance” in Europe

6.4.3. The boom of European astronomy in the XV-XVI century

6.5. Bottom-line chronological diagram which demonstrates oddities inherent in the development of the astronomical science in the consensual chronological paradigm of Scaliger and Petavius

6.6. Corollaries

7. Copernicus, Tycho Brahe and Kepler. The relation between Johannes Kepler and the final version of the Copernican oeuvre

7.1. What we know about Copernicus and his astronomical endeavours. Was the heliocentric cosmological system indeed discovered in the first half of the XVI century and not any later?

7.2. Oddities in the Scaligerian story of how the book of Copernicus was published

7.3. Why it is believed that Tycho Brahe “did not accept the theory of Copernicus”. In reality, the system invented by Tycho Brahe is identical to the Copernican

7.4. Is it true that the book of Copernicus, first published in the alleged year 1543, has reached us in its initial shape and form?

7.5. Could Johannes Kepler be the editor or even co-author of the “canonical version” of the Copernican oeuvre known to us today?

7.6. The heliocentric cosmology and the Biblical “stopped sun”

8. Anna Comnena considers Ptolemy her contemporary. In other words, Ptolemy couldn’t have lived earlier than the XII century A.D.

9. Obvious dating of the Ptolemaic epoch on Ptolemy’s portrait in the old German “Global Chronicles” by Hartmann Schedel

10. The meaning of the word “Pelusiensis” (or “Pheludiensis”) in the full name of Ptolemy


by A. T. Fomenko, T. N. Fomenko, G. V. Nosovskiy

A foreword to Part 2

From the preface to The New Chronology of Egypt. The Astronomical Datings of Ancient Egyptian Monuments. Research of 2000-2002 by A. T. Fomenko and G. V. Nosovskiy (Moscow, Veche, 2002)

Chapter 12: The Egyptian zodiacs

1. The Egyptian zodiacs and the likelihood of their reliable astronomical dating

2. The astronomical dating of Egyptian zodiacs and related difficulties. The reasons why the Egyptologists eschew the astronomical dating of the zodiacs

3. Our new approach to the dating of Egyptian zodiacs

4. The funereal character of zodiacs in Egypt

5. Representations of the Egyptian zodiacs as used by the authors

Stylistic changes in the zodiacs from the Napoleonic Egyptian album

7. The names we use for the Egyptian zodiacs

Chapter 13: Former astronomical datings of the Egyptian zodiacs

1. The Round and the Long Zodiac of Dendera

2. The two zodiacs from Esna

3. Flinders Petrie’s Athribis zodiacs

4. The Theban Zodiac of Brugsch

5. Astronomical dating in the works of the Egyptologists

Chapter 14: A new approach to the deciphermentof the Egyptian zodiacs

1. The shortcomings of the earlier decipherments of the Egyptian zodiacs

2. A new approach to the interpretation of Egyptian zodiacs. Primary and secondary horoscopes

3. An Egyptian zodiac as a description of the entire calendar year that contains the main horoscope’s date

4. Unlike previous researchers, who stopped at a single interpretation version they deemed best, we consider every possible decipherment option for the Egyptian zodiacs

Chapter 15: The symbolism of the Egyptian zodiacs. A new and more complete interpretation

1. Constellation symbols

1.1. Aries

1.2. Taurus

1.3. Gemini

1.4. Cancer

1.5. Leo

1.6. Virgo

1.7. Libra

1.8. Scorpio

1.9. Sagittarius

1.10. Capricorn

1.11. Aquarius

1.12. Pisces

2. The ten-degree symbols and the “resolution” of the Egyptian zodiacs

2.1. The ten-degree marks in the Long Zodiac (DL)

2.2. The division of the ecliptic into 36 parts and the exactness of planetary representations in Egyptian zodiacs

3. Distinguishing between the male and the female figures in the Egyptian zodiacs

4. Planetary symbols of the primary horoscope

4.1. The planetary rod

4.2. Saturn in the primary horoscope

4.3. Seth, Anubis and Thoth as the symbols of Saturn and Mercury

4.4. Confusion between Saturn and Mercury in astral symbolism

4.5. Our hypothesis in re the genesis of the old cult of Saturn

4.6. Jupiter in the main horoscope

4.7. Mars in the primary horoscope

4.8. Venus in the primary horoscope

4.9. Mercury in the primary horoscope

4.10. The attributes of Mercury in the Egyptian zodiacs

4.11. Mercury drawn in two positions simultaneously

4.12. Mercury as the symbol of the “two-faced god” Janus (Ivan)

4.13. The Sun in the primary horoscope

4.14. The astronomical symbolism of the Egyptian “eye” symbol

4.15. The Moon in the primary horoscope

5. Planetary symbols in secondary horoscopes

5.1. The first example: the planets from the secondary horoscope of autumn equinox in zodiac DL

5.2. The second example: planets from the secondary horoscope of winter solstice in the DR zodiac

5.3. Third example: planets from the secondary horoscope of summer solstice in the AN zodiac

6. Boats, snakes and other transposition symbols underneath the figures

7. Visibility indicators of the primary horoscope’s planets

8. Equinox and solstice symbols

8.1. Autumn equinox symbols in Virgo

8.2. Symbols of the winter solstice point in Sagittarius. The “astronomical hieroglyph” of Sagittarius with a minimal horoscope

8.3. Symbolism of the spring equinox point in Pisces

8.4. Symbols of the summer solstice point in Gemini. The “astronomical hieroglyph” of Gemini with a minimal horoscope

9. Auxiliary astronomical symbols in Egyptian zodiacs

9.1. The Easter Full Moon

9.2. The solar bird in the Long Zodiac of Dendera (DL)

9.3. The symbol of dusk and dawn

9.4. The decapitation scene next to Aquarius

9.5. The stabbed calf (bullfighting scene)

9.6. Wolf on a scythe in the zodiacs of Dendera

9.7. The conjunction of Mars and Saturn in the Long Zodiac of Dendera

10. Legitimate and illegitimate zodiac decipherments

11. Observation point: Cairo or Luxor (Ibrim)?

12. The beginning of a year in Egyptian zodiacs

Chapter 16: Astronomical estimation of the dates ciphered in the Egyptian zodiacs: a methodology

1. Seven planets of the antiquity. Zodiacs and horoscopes

2. The possible presence of calculated horoscopes in Egyptian zodiacs

3. The motion of planets along the Zodiac

4. Dividing the zodiacal belt into constellations

5. “Astral calendar”. How often do individual horoscopes recur?

6. The calculation of past planetary positions. The Horos software. Modern planetary theory precision suffices for the dating of the Egyptian zodiacs

7. The dating of an Egyptian zodiac with the aid of its primary and secondary horoscopes regarded as a whole

7.1. First step. Defining the primary horoscope’s planets. All possible options are considered

7.2. Second step. Calculating the dates for every interpretation option of the primary horoscope

7.3. Third step. Solutions are tested to comply with such criteria as planetary disposition, visibility indicators and secondary horoscopes. Rejection of incomplete solutions

8. The “coloured” Egyptian zodiac

9. Unambiguous reconstruction of the dates transcribed in the Egyptian zodiacs. Final (exhaustive) solutions

10. The “constellation scale” of a zodiac

11. Points of approximate planetary disposition in an Egyptian zodiac (“best points”) and accounting for planetary order

12. Average distance between best points as the approximate quality criterion of an astronomical solution

13. An example of the input data format used by the Horos program

14. Verification table for the astronomical solution

Chapter 17: Dates ciphered in the monumental temple zodiacs of Dendera and Esna

1. The zodiacs from Dendera and Esna as part of the grandiose royal necropolis in the “Royal Bight” of the Nile

2. The Zodiacs of Dendera: history of discovery and research

3. Deciphering the date of the Long Zodiac of Dendera (DL)

3.1. The Long Zodiac of Dendera and the various representations thereof

3.2. The Long Zodiac of Dendera in colour

3.3. Constellation figures in the DL zodiac

3.4. Planetary figures of the primary horoscope from the DL zodiac

3.5. Secondary horoscopes in the DL zodiac

3.5.1. Autumn equinox horoscope in the DL zodiac

3.5.2. Winter solstice horoscope in the DL zodiac

3.5.3. Horoscope of spring equinox in the DL zodiac

3.5.4. The summer solstice horoscope in the DL zodiac

3.6. Validation and rejection of preliminary solutions

3.7. The exhaustive solution of the Long Zodiac: 22-26 April 1168 A.D.

3.8. Verification table for the exhaustive solution of the Long Zodiac

4. The decipherment of the date from the Round Zodiac of Dendera (DR)

4.1. Copies of the Round Zodiac from Dendera

4.2. The coloured version of the Round Zodiac

4.3. Constellation figures in the DR zodiac

4.4. Planetary symbols from the primary horoscope of the DR zodiac

4.5. Secondary horoscopes in the DR zodiac

4.5.1. Autumn equinox horoscope in the DR zodiac

4.5.2. Winter solstice horoscope in the DR zodiac

4.5.3. Spring equinox horoscope in the DR zodiac

4.5.4. Summer solstice horoscope in the DR zodiac

4.6. The exhaustive solution for the Round Zodiac: morning of 20 March 1185 A.D.

4.7. Verification table for the exhaustive solution of the Round Zodiac 557

5. The decipherment of the dating contained in the zodiac from the Greater Temple of Esna (EB)

5.1. Copies of the zodiac from the Greater Temple of Esna

5.2. Coloured zodiac from the Greater Temple of Esna. Symbols of constellations and planets in the primary horoscope

5.3. The primary horoscope and the “doubles” of planets in the EB zodiac

5.4. Visibility indicators in the EB zodiac

5.5. Secondary horoscopes in the EB zodiac

5.6. The exhaustive solution of the EB zodiac: 31 March – 3 April 1394 A.D.

5.7. The verification table for the complete solution of the EB zodiac

6. The decipherment of the date from the zodiac found in the Lesser Temple of Esna (EM)

6.1. Drawn copies of the zodiac from the Lesser Temple of Esna

6.2. The coloured version of the zodiac

6.3. “Constellation parentheses” in the primary horoscope’s planetary row in the EM zodiac

6.4. Planetary figures of the primary horoscope in the EM zodiac

6.5. Secondary horoscopes and auxiliary scenes in the EM zodiac

6.5.1. Autumn equinox horoscope in the EM zodiac

6.5.2. Winter solstice horoscope in the EM zodiac

6.5.3. The horoscope of vernal equinox and the additional scene between Aquarius and Capricorn in the EM zodiac

6.5.4. Summer solstice horoscope in the EM zodiac

6.6. The exhaustive solution of the EM zodiac: 6-8 May 1404 A.D.

6.7. The verification table for the exhaustive solution of the EM zodiac

7. The correlation between the solution dates and the New Chronology as well as our reconstruction of history

Chapter 18: Dates in zodiacs discovered inside Egyptian sepulchres

1. The Athribis zodiacs of Flinders Petrie (AV + AN)

1.1. The decipherment of the primary horoscope. Six options of planetary identification

1.2. Secondary horoscopes and additional scenes in the zodiacs from Athribis

1.3. Results of calculations including six options with rigid planetary order

1.4. Calculation results for six versions with random order of invisible planets

1.5. The exhaustive solution of the zodiacs from Athribis: 15-16 May 1230 for the Lower, and 9-10 February 1268 for the Upper Zodiac

1.6. A comparison of planetary positions in the solutions with those specified in the zodiacs

1.7. Checking correspondence to the secondary horoscope of summer solstice

1.8. Verification by the “scene of meeting in Leo”

1.9. The archaic June year as used in the zodiacs of Athribis

1.10. Final identification of the planetary birds

1.11. Verification of the solution’s stability

1.12. Corollaries

2. The Theban Zodiac of Brugsch (BR)

2.1. The demotic subscript horoscope in Brugsch’s zodiac

2.2. The horoscope “without rods” from Brugsch’s zodiac

2.3. The horoscope “with boats” in Brugsch’s zodiac

2.4. Corollaries

2.5. The version with the baboon representing the moon in the “horoscope without rods”

3. The “colour zodiac from Thebes” (OU)

3.1. Constellation figures

3.2. Planetary figures

3.3. The primary horoscope and the extra conditions

3.4. Preliminary solutions of the primary horoscope

3.5. Verification by compliance to additional criteria

3.6. Corollary: the date transcribed in the OU zodiac is 5-8 September 1182 A.D. 634

Chapter 18: Dating results for Egyptian zodiacs

1. The general situation with the datings of the Egyptian zodiacs

2. The stability of the datings that we came up with

3. Unresolved issues in the decipherment of Egyptian zodiacs

4. Astronomical dating of Sumerian tablets

5. A list of 28 ancient zodiacs, discovered and dated by the authors recently


1. Tables of fast and named stars of the Almagest that can be identified reliably

2. The computer program of the geometrical method of dating of star configurations by their proper movement taking into account the systematic errors of the catalogue

3. The description of the Horos program as used for the purposes of dating the Egyptian zodiacs

4. Input data for the Horos program that yielded finite interpretation options

5. Julian day numbers and the days of solstices and equinoxes as taken for the beginnings of centuries in the past

6. A list of solutions for the zodiacs from Athribis under less strict conditions

7. A more precise drawn copy of the Greater Zodiac of Esna performed by the authors of the present book in Egypt and based on the original

8. Our replies to the authors of certain erroneous works, who tried to refute our astronomical datings

9. WIKIPEDIA Damage Control on New Chronology (Fomenko) page

The complete bibliography to the seven volumes

Author Bio
Fomenko, Anatoly Timofeevich. Born in 1945. Full Member (Academician) of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Full Member of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, Full Member of the International Higher Education Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Physics and Mathematics, Professor, Head of the Moscow State University Department of Mathematics and Mechanics. Solved the Plateau s Problem from the theory of minimal spectral surfaces. Author of the theory of invariants and topological classification of integrable Hamiltonian dynamic systems. Laureate of the 1996 National Premium in Mathematics of the Russian Federation for a cycle of works on the Hamiltonian dynamic system multitude invariance theory. Author of 180 scientific publications, 26 monographs and textbooks on mathematics, a specialist in geometry and topology, variational calculus, symplectic topology, Hamiltonian geometry and mechanics, computer geometry. Author of a number of books on the development of new empirico-statistical methods and their application to the analysis of historical chronicles as well as the chronology of antiquity and the Middle Ages.