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History: Fiction or Science? New Chronology Vol. 1

Dating methods as offered by mathematical statistics. Eclipses and zodiacs.

Dr Prof A.T.Fomenko


History: Fiction or Science? is the most explosive tractate on history ever written - however, every theory it contains, no matter how unorthodox, is backed by solid scientific data. The book is well-illustrated, contains over 446 graphs and illustrations, copies of ancient manuscripts, and countless facts attesting to the falsity of the chronology used nowadays, which never cease to amaze the reader.

Eminent mathematician proves that: Jesus Christ was born in 1153 and crucified in 1186 The Old Testament refers to mediaeval events. Apocalypse was written after 1486. Does this sound uncanny? This version of events is substantiated by hard facts and logic - validated by new astronomical research and statistical analysis of ancient sources - to a greater extent than everything you may have read and heard about history before.

The dominating historical discourse in its current state was essentially crafted in the XVI century from a rather contradictory jumble of sources such as innumerable copies of ancient Latin and Greek manuscripts whose originals had vanished in the Dark Ages and the allegedly irrefutable proof offered by late mediaeval astronomers, resting upon the power of ecclesial authorities. Nearly all of its components are blatantly untrue!

For some of us, it shall possibly be quite disturbing to see the magnificent edifice of classical history to turn into an ominous simulacrum brooding over the snake pit of mediaeval politics. Twice so, in fact: the first seeing the legendary millenarian dust on the ancient marble turn into a mere layer of dirt - one that meticulous unprejudiced research can eventually remove. The second, and greater, attack of unease comes with the awareness of just how many areas of human knowledge still trust the three elephants of the consensual chronology to support them. Nothing can remedy that except for an individual chronological revolution happening in the minds of a large enough number of people.


Overview of the seven volumes

About the Author

Also by Analoly T. Fomenko

A Global Falsification of History. Foreword by Alexander Zinoviev

Foreword by A. Shiryaev

Publisher’s Note

Preface by A. T. Fomenko

History of the New Chronology. By A. T. Fomenko and G. V. Nosovskiy

Publisher’s Advice

Chapter 1: The problems of historical chronology

1. Roman chronology as the foundation of European chronology

2. Scaliger, Petavius, and other clerical chronologers. The creation of contemporary chronology of the ancient times in the XVI-XVII century A.D.

3. The veracity of the Scaliger-Petavius chronology was questioned as early as the XVI century

3.1. Who criticized Scaliger’s chronology and where

3.1.1. De Arcilla, Robert Baldauf, Jean Hardouin, Edwin Johnson, Wilhelm Kammeyer

3.1.2. Sir Isaac Newton

3.1.3. Nikolai Alexandrovich Morozov

3.1.4. Recent publications of German scientists containing criticisms of Scaligerian chronology

3.2. The questionable veracity of the Roman chronology and history. The hypercritical school of the XIX century

4. The problems in establishing a correct chronology of “ancient” Egypt

5. The problem in dating the “ancient” sources. Tacitus and Poggio. Cicero and Barzizza. Vitruvius and Alberti

6. Timekeeping in the Middle Ages. Historians discuss the “chaos reigning in the mediaeval datings.” Peculiar mediaeval anachronisms

7. The chronology and the dating of Biblical texts

8. Difficulties and contradictions arising from the reading of old texts

8.1. How does one read a text written in consonants exclusively? The vocalization problem

8.2. The sounds “R” and “L” were often confused in the Middle Ages

9. Problems in the Scaligerian geography of Biblical events

9.1. Archaeology and the Old Testament

9.2. Archaeology and the New Testament

10. Ancient historical events: geographic localization issues

10.1. The locations of Troy and Babylon

10.2. The geography of Herodotus is at odds with the Scaligerian version

10.3. The inverted maps of the Middle Ages

11. A modern analysis of Biblical geography

12. The mysterious Renaissance epoch as a product of the Scaligerian chronology

13. The foundations of archaeological methods have been based on the Scaligerian chronology from the very beginning

13.1. The ambiguity of archaeological datings and their dependence on the existing chronology

13.2. The excavations of Pompeii. The dating of this town’s destruction

13.2. The allegedly accelerated destruction of the “ancient” monuments

13.3. When did the construction of the Cologne Cathedral really begin?

13.4. Archaeological methods are most often based on Scaligerian datings

13.5. One of the numerous problems of the Scaligerian history – the problem of bronze manufacture before the discovery of tin

14. The problems and deficiencies of dendrochronology and several other dating methods

14.1. The consequent scale of dendrochronological datings does not extend further back in time than the X century A.D.

14.2. Sedimentary layer datings. The methods of radium-uranium and radium-actinium analysis

15. Are radiocarbon datings to be trusted?

15.1. The radiocarbon datings of ancient, mediaeval, and modern specimens are scattered chaotically

15.1.1. Libby’s initial idea. The first failures

15.1.2. A criticism of the application of the radiocarbon method to historical specimens

15.2. The dating of the Shroud of Turin

15.3 Modern radiocarbon analysis of Egyptian artefacts demonstrates serious contradictions

16. Critical analysis of the hypotheses on which the radiocarbon method is based

16.1. W. F. Libby’s initial idea

16.2. Physical basics of the radiocarbon method

16.3. The hypotheses that the radiocarbon method is based upon

16.4. The moment of the object’s departure from the exchange reservoir

16.5. Radiocarbon content variations in the exchange reservoir

16.6. Variations in radiocarbon content of living bodies

17. Summary

18. Numismatic dating

Chapter 2: Astronomical datings

1. The strange leap of parameter D" in the Theory of Lunar Motion

2. Are the “ancient” and mediaeval eclipses dated correctly?

2.1. Some astronomical data

2.2. The discovery of an interesting effect: an unprejudiced astronomical dating shifts the dates of the “ancient” eclipses to the Middle Ages

2.3. Three eclipses described by the “ancient” Thucydides

2.4. The eclipses described by the “ancient” Titus Livy

3. Transferring the dates of the “ancient” eclipses forward in time into the Middle Ages eliminates the enigmatic behaviour of the parameter D"

4. Astronomy moves the “ancient” horoscopes into the Middle Ages

4.1. The mediaeval astronomy

4.2. The method of unprejudiced astronomical dating

4.3. Many “ancient astronomical observations” may have been theoretically calculated by late mediaeval astronomers and then included into the “ancient” chronicles as “real observations”

4.4. Which astronomical “observations of the ancients” might be a result of late mediaeval theoretical calculations?

5. A brief account of several examples of Egyptian Zodiacs

5.1. Some general observations

5.2. The Dendera Zodiacs

5.3. The horoscopes of Brugsch and Flinders Petrie

5.4. Finite datings of Egyptian Zodiacs based on their complete decipherment, as calculated by A. T. Fomenko and G. V. Nosovskiy in 2001

5.5. On the errors of E. S. Goloubtsova and Y. A. Zavenyagin

6. Astronomy in the New Testament

Chapter 3: The new dating of the astronomical horoscope as described in the Apocalypse

By A. T. Fomenko and G. V. Nosovskiy

1. The proposed research method

2. General information about the Apocalypse and the time of its creation

3. Ursa Major and the throne

4. The events took place on the Isle of Patmos

5. The constellations of Cassiopeia and the throne were drawn as Christ sitting on his throne in the Middle Ages

6. The Milky Way

7. Twenty-four sidereal hours and the constellation of the Northern Crown

8. Leo, Taurus, Sagittarius, Pegasus

9. The daily rotation of the Northern Crown

10. Equine planetary images in mediaeval astronomy

11. Jupiter is in Sagittarius

12. Mars is beneath Perseus in either Gemini or Taurus

13. Mercury is in Libra

14. Saturn is in Scorpio

15. The Sun is in Virgo with the Moon underneath the feet of the latter

16. Venus is in Leo

17. The astronomical dating of the Apocalypse by the horoscope it contains

18. Our reconstruction of the initial content of the Apocalypse

Chapter 4: Astronomy in the Old Testament

1. Mediaeval astronomy in the Old Testament Book of Ezekiel

1.1. The title of the book

1.2. The description of the Milky Way and the Ophiuchus constellation

1.3. The Biblical description of the astronomical sectors, or “wings,” on the celestial sphere

1.4. The constellations of Leo, Taurus and Aquila

1.5. The Biblical description of the mediaeval “wheels,” or planetary orbits

1.6. Parallels with the astronomical symbolism of the Apocalypse

1.7. Biblical cherubim, chariots, and mediaeval planetary orbital wheels

1.8. The Biblical description of mediaeval cosmology as a celestial temple

2. The Biblical prophecy of Zechariah and the date of its creation

3. The Biblical prophecy of Jeremiah and the date of its creation

4. The Biblical prophecy of Isaiah and the date of its creation

5. The Biblical prophecy of Daniel and the date of its creation

Chapter 5: The methods of dating the ancient events offered by mathematical statistics

1. The local maxima method

1.1. The historical text volume function

1.2. The maxima correlation principle

1.3. Statistical model

1.4. Experimental test of the maxima correlation principle. Examples of dependent and independent historical texts

1.5. Method of dating applied to historical events

2. Volume functions of historical texts and the amplitude correlation principle

2.1. Dependent and independent chronicles. The correlation of volume function maxima

2.2. Rich and poor chronicles and chronicle zones

2.3. Significant and insignificant zeroes of volume functions

2.4. The information respect principle

2.5. The amplitude correlation principle of volume graphs in the poor zones of chronicles

2.6. Description and formalization of the statistical model

2.7. The hypothesis about the increase of the “form” parameter of a chronicle in the course of time

2.8. A list of processed Russian chronicles and their characteristics

2.9. The final table of the numeric experiment

2.10. Interesting consequences of the numeric experiment. The confirmation of the statistical model

2.11. Comparison of a priori dependent Russian chronicles

2.12. Comparison of a priori independent Russian chronicles

2.13. Growth of form parameter over the course of time for the Russian chronicles after the XIII century

2.14. Growth of the average form parameter over the course of time for groups of Russian chronicles of the XIII-XVI century

2.15. Growth of the average form parameter over the course of time for groups of Russian chronicles dating from the alleged IX-XIII century

2.16. Chronological shift of 300 or 400 years inherent in Russian history

2.17. Conclusions

3. The maxima correlation principle as applied to the sources related to the epoch of Strife in Russian history (1584-1619)

4. The method used for the recognition and dating of royal dynasties. The small dynastic distortions principle

4.1. The formulation of the small dynastic distortions principle

4.2. The statistical model

4.3. Refinement of the model and computation experiment

4.4. Result of the experiment: coefficient c(a, b) positively distinguishes between the dependent and independent dynasties of kings

4.5. The methods used for the dating of royal dynasties and the detection of phantom dynastic duplicates

5. The frequency damping principle. The method used for ordering historical texts chronologically

6. Application of the method to some concrete historical texts

7. The method applied to the dating of events

8. The frequency duplication principle. The duplicate detection method

9. Statistical analysis of the Bible

9.1. Partition of the Bible into 218 “generation chapters”

9.2. Detection of the previously known duplicates in the Bible with the aid of the frequency damping principle

9.3. New, previously unknown duplicates discovered in the Bible. General scheme of their distribution inside the Bible

9.4. A representative example: the new statistical dating of the Apocalypse, which trasposes it from the New Testament into the Old

10. The method of form-codes. The comparison of two long currents of regal biographies

11. Correct chronological ordering method and the dating of ancient geographical maps.. 238

Chapter 6: The construction of a global chronological map and the results of applying mathematical procedures of dating to the Scaligerian version of the ancient history

1. Ancient and mediaeval history textbook in the consensual Scaliger-Petavius datings

2. Mysterious duplicate chronicles inside the “Scaliger-Petavius textbook”

3. Mysterious duplicate regal dynasties inside the “textbook of Scaliger-Petavius”

4. Brief tables of some astonishing dynastic parallelisms

5. Conformity of results obtained by different methods

5.1. General assertion

5.2. The concurrence between the different methods illustrated by the example of Biblical Judaic reign identified as the Holy Roman Empire of the alleged X-XIII century A.D.

6. The general layout of duplicates in “the textbook of Scaliger-Petavius”. The discovery of the three basic chronological shifts

7. Scaligerian textbook of ancient history as collated four duplicates of the short original chronicle

8. The list of phantom “ancient” events, the exposure phantom duplicates, or reflections of the mediaeval originals

9. “Ancient” Biblical history identified as the history of Europe in the Middle Ages

10. Our hypothesis: history as described in surviving chronicles only begins around the X century A.D. We know nothing of the events that took place before the X century A.D.

11. Authentic history only begins in XVII century A.D. History of the XI-XVI century is largely distorted. Many dates of the XI-XVI century require correction

12. The radical distinction of our chronological conception from the version of N. A.Morozov

13. The hypothesis about the cause of the fallacious chronological shifts inherent in ancient history

13.1. Chronological shift of 1000-1100 yearsas the consequence of Christ’s lifetime getting misdated

13.2. The letter “X” had formerly denoted the name of Christ, but was eventually declared to stand for the figure of ten. The letter “I” formerly denoted the name “Jesus”, but was eventually declared to stand for “one thousand”

13.3. Until the XVIII century, the Roman letters “I” or “J”, or the first letters of the name Jesus, were still used in several European regions to denote “one” in recorded dates

13.4. How the chronological shift of 330 or 360 years could have occured

13.5. What Roman letters M, D, C as used in Roman dates stood for originally, in the Middle Ages

13.5.1. General idea

13.5.2. Example: the date on the tomb of Empress Gisela

13.5.3. Another example: the date on the headstone of Emperor Rudolf Habsburg

13.5.4. As recently as in the XVIII century, there was no unified transcription system for mediaeval dates

13.5.5. Some datings contained in printed books and manuscripts of the XV-XVII century will apparently have to be moved forwards in time by at least fifty more years

13.6. Dating the foundation of Rome of Italy

13.7. Confusion between the foundation dates of Rome in Italy and New Rome on the Bosporus

13.8. Scaliger and the Council of Trent. Scaligerian chronology of the antiquity and its introduction in the XVI-XVII century

13.9. Two phantom “ancient” reflections of Dionysius Petavius, a mediaeval chronologist of the XVII century

14. A stratified structure of textbook of ancient history according to Scaliger

15. The coordination of a new astronomical dating with a dynastic parallel

16. A strange lapse in Scaligerian chronology near “the beginning of the new era”

Chapter 7: “Dark Ages” in mediaeval history

1. The mysterious Renaissance of the “Classical Age” in mediaeval Rome

1.1. The lugubrious “Dark Ages” in Europe that presumably succeeded the splendour of the “Classical Age”

1.2. Parallels between the “antiquity” and the Middle Ages that are known to historians, but misinterpreted by them

1.3. Mediaeval Roman legislators convene in the presumably destroyed “ancient” Capitol

1.4. The real date when the famous “ancient” statue of Marcus Aurelius was manufactured

1.5. Could the “ancient” Emperor Vitellius have posed for the mediaeval artist Tintoretto?

1.6. The amount of time required for the manufacture of one sheet of parchment

1.7. The “ancient” Roman Emperor Augustus was Christian, since he had worn a mediaeval crown with a Christian cross

2. The “ancient” historian Tacitus and the well-known Renaissance writer Poggio Bracciolini

3. The mediaeval Western European Christian cult and the “ancient” pagan Bacchic celebrations

4. Petrarch (= Plutarch?) and the “Renaissance of antiquity”

4.1. How Petrarch created the legend of the glorious Italian Rome out of nothing

4.2. Petrarch’s private correspondence with people considered “ancient characters” nowadays

5. “Ancient” Greece and mediaeval Greece of the XIII-XVI century

5.1. The history of the mediaeval Athens is supposed to be obscured by darkness up until the XVI century

5.2. Greece and the Crusades

5.3. The history of Greek and Athenian archaeology is relatively short

5.4. The tendentious distortion of the image of mediaeval Athens in the “restoration works” of the XIX-XX century

6. Strange parallels in the Scaligerian history of religions

6.1. Mediaeval Christianity and its reflection in the Scaligerian “pagan antiquity”

6.2. Mediaeval Christianity and “ancient” Mithraism

6.3. References to Jesus Christ contained in “ancient” Egyptian artefacts

6.4. Researchers of the ancient religions commenting on the strange similarities between the cults of the “antiquity” and of the Middle Ages

6.5. Moses, Aaron and their sister Virgin Mary on the pages of the Koran

6.6. The XII century as the apparent epoch of St. Mark’s lifetime. The history of Cathedral of San Marco in Venice

7. The “ancient” Egypt and the Middle Ages

7.1. The odd graph of demotic text datings

7.2. The enigmatic “revival periods” in the history of “ancient” Egypt

7.3. The ancient Hittites and the mediaeval Goths

8. Problems inherent in the Scaligerian chronology of India

9. Was the artificial elongation of ancient history deliberate?


2.1. (to Chapter 2): Grammatical analysis of an eclipse description in History by Thucydides

5.1. (to Chapter 5): Per annum volume distribution in some Russian chronicles

5.2. (to Chapter 5): Frequency matrix of names and parallels in the Bible. By V. P. Fomenko and T. G. Fomenko

6.1. (to Chapter 6): Per annum volume distribution in The History of the City of Rome in the Middle Ages by F. Gregorovius

6.2. (to Chapter 6): Per annum volume distribution in The Roman History from the Foundation of the City by Titus Livy

6.3. (to Chapter 6): Per annum volume distribution in the book by Baronius describing mediaeval Rome

6.4. (to Chapter 6): The “double entry” of the Biblical royal reigns of Israel and Judah

6.5. (to Chapter 6): Armenian history. Emperors of the Holy Roman Empire of the alleged X-XIII century A.D., a.k.a. the Kings of Judah, a.k.a. the mediaeval Armenian Catholicoses

1. Three phantom reflections of the same mediaeval dynasty

2. The parallelism between the mediaeval Armenian history and the phantom Roman Empire according to Scaliger

6.6. (to Chapter 6): The identification of the “ancient” Kingdom of Judah with the Holy Roman Empire of the alleged X-XIII century A.D. The correlation between reign durations and biographical volumes

The complete bibliography to the seven volumes

Author Bio

Fomenko, Anatoly Timofeevich. Born in 1945. Full Member (Academician) of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Full Member of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, Full Member of the International Higher Education Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Physics and Mathematics, Professor, Head of the Moscow State University Department of Mathematics and Mechanics. Solved the Plateau s Problem from the theory of minimal spectral surfaces. Author of the theory of invariants and topological classification of integrable Hamiltonian dynamic systems.

Laureate of the 1996 National Premium in Mathematics of the Russian Federation for a cycle of works on the Hamiltonian dynamic system multitude invariance theory. Author of 180 scientific publications, 26 monographs and textbooks on mathematics, a specialist in geometry and topology, variational calculus, symplectic topology, Hamiltonian geometry and mechanics, computer geometry. Author of a number of books on the development of new empirico-statistical methods and their application to the analysis of historical chronicles as well as the chronology of antiquity and the Middle Ages.