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History: Fiction or Science? New Chronology Vol. 2

The dynastic parallelism method. Rome. Troy. Greece. The Bible. Chronological shifts.

Dr Prof A.T.Fomenko

9782913621060
Mithec
Overview

This book is the beginning of a major correction to the chronology we live with. Who and Why invented Antiquity and Dark Ages? The consensual world history was manufactured in Europe in XVI-XIX centuries with political agenda of powers of that period on the basis of erroneous clerical chronology elaborated by Jesuits Joseph Justus Scaliger and Dionysius Petavius. By middle of XVI th century the prime political agenda of Europe that reached superiority in Sciences and Technologies, but was still inferior militarily to the Evil Empire of Eurasia, was to free Europe.

The concerted effort of European aristocracy, black and white catholic clergy, protestants, humanists and scientists in XV - XVII th centuries in creation and dissemination of fictional Ancient World served this agenda. The fictional Ancient World was created by representing events of XI-XVI centuries as ones that happened thousands years before according to the ancient sources they wrote by authorities they invented.

The European aristocracy, considerable part of which were fugitives from Byzantine and/or the inheritors of Eurasian warlords, supported the myth of Ancient World to justify its claims to countries they ruled. The black and white catholic clergy, protestants developed and supported the myth of Ancient World to justify their claims of being more ancient and to separate themselves from eurasian orthodoxy in the countries ruled by European aristocracy.

The scientists supported the myth of Ancient World as safe cover for their heretic research that produced results contrarian to the tenets of Christianity. They justified their discoveries by authorities of ancient scientists they themselves invented and used as pseudonyms. The humanists developed and supported the myth of Ancient World as convenient safe haven for their ideas that conflicted with Christianity and aristocracy. They disguised and justified their ideas on authorities of ancient authors of their own making and wrote under their glorious aliases

The Author refers to the Middle Ages as the Antiquity and proves mutual superimposition of the Second and the Third Roman Empire, both of which become identified as the respective kingdoms of Israel and Judah. Furthermore, he asserts that the famous reform of the Occidental Church in the XI century by Pope Gregory Hildebrand was the reflection of the XII century reforms of Byzantine emperor Andronicus who in his turn identifies with Jesus Christ. The Trojan war counted by Homer happened only as late as of the XIII century A.D. and the great poet actually lived in XIV century A.D. No stone in history of Antiquity is left unturned. Literally.

CONTENTS

Overview of the seven volumes.

About the Author

Also by Analoly T. Fomenko

Are History and Astronomy incompatible? By Béla Lukács.

Ages in Chaos. By Dr. Eugen Gabowitsch.

Preface by A. T. Fomenko

From the Publisher

Chapter 1: The Middle Ages referred to as the “Antiquity”. Mutual superimposition of the Second and the Third Roman Empire, both of which become identified as the respective kingdoms of Israel and Judah

1. Identifying the Second and the Third “ancient” Roman Empire as the same state. A chronological shift of 330 years

1.1. A dynastic description of the Second and the Third Roman Empire

1.2. Biographical parallelism between the Second and Third Roman Empires. The 330-year shift

2. The correlation between two different dating methods illustrated by the superimposition of two epochs from the history of Roman Papacy one over the other. A brief scheme

3. The superimposition of the Israelite (Theomachist) Kingdom over the Third Roman Empire in the West. A shift of circa 1230 years

4. Identifying the theocratic Kingdom of Judah as the Third Roman Empire in the East. A shift of circa 1230 years (short diagram)

5. Saint Basil the Great in the alleged IV century A.D. and his prototype in the XII century A.D. – Jesus Christ. The resulting shift of 820 years

Chapter 2: The famous reform of the Occidental Church in the XI century by “Pope Gregory Hildebrand” as the reflection of the XII century reforms of Andronicus (Christ). The Trojan war of the XIII century A.D.

1. “Pope Gregory Hildebrand” from the XI century A.D. as a replica of Jesus Christ (Andronicus) from the XII century. A chronological shift of 100 years. The Scaligerite chronologists have subsequently moved the life of Christ 1050 years backwards, into the I century A.D.

1.1. Astronomy in the Gospels

1.1.1. The true dating of the evangelical eclipse

1.1.2. The Gospels apparently reflect a sufficiently advanced level of astronomical eclipse theories, which contradicts the consensual evangelical history

1.2. The Roman John Crescentius of the alleged X century A.D. as a reflection of the Evangelical John the Baptist from the XII century A.D. A biographical parallelism

1.3. “Pope” Gregory VII Hildebrand from the Roman chronicles dated to the XI century A.D. as the reflection of Jesus Christ (Andronicus) from the XI century A.D. A biographical parallelism

1.4. The Bethlehem Star of the alleged I century and the famous supernova explosion of circa 1150 (subsequently shifted to 1054 by the chronologists)

1.5. The Crucifixion of Jesus on Mount Beykos, or the evangelical Golgotha, which is located outside Constantinople, near the shore of the Bosporus

2. Identifying Livy’s “Ancient Imperial Rome” as the Third Roman Empire after a 1053-year shift

3. Identifying the Tarquinian war of the alleged VI century B.C. as the Gothic war of the alleged VI century A.D. with a 1053-year shift

4. The parallelism between the Gothic War of the alleged VI century and the Nika rebellion that took place in the same century. No date shift here

5. The Trojan war of the alleged XIII century B.C. superimposed over the Gothic war of the alleged VI century A.D. after an 1800-year temporal shift forwards

5.1. The first accounts of the Trojan War: their presumed authorship, as well as geographical and temporal origins

5.1.1. The general conception of chronological shifts

5.1.2. The strange fate of Homer’s epic poems

5.1.3. Dares and Dictis – the “alleged participants” of the Trojan War

5.1.4. The mediaeval troubadours and the Franks telling us about the Trojan War

5.1.5. The ruins of a small mediaeval fortification that Heinrich Schliemann suggested to refer to as “the remnants of the ancient Troy”

5.2. The tale of the Trojan kingdom. A rough comparison of the Trojan War to the Gothic War

5.3. The legend of a woman and the casus belli of the Trojan War

5.4. The beginning of the war

5.5. The fall of Naples (the “New City”) = the fall of Troy. The mediaeval aqueduct and the “ancient” Trojan Horse

5.6. The “ancient” Achilles = the “ancient” Valerius. The “ancient” Patroclus = the “ancient” Brutus

5.7. The “ancient” Achilles = the mediaeval Belisarius. The “ancient” Hector = the mediaeval Gothic king Vittigis

5.8. The “treason” of the “ancient” Achilles = the “treason” of the mediaeval Belisarius

5.9. The “ancient” Troilus = the mediaeval Gothic king Totila. The “ancient” Paris = the “ancient” Etruscan Larth Porsenna

5.10. The end of the war

5.11. Other legends of the Trojan War

5.12. What is it about the Trojan chronicles that surprises the present day historians the most?

5.13. How similar are the respective descriptions of the Trojan and the Gothic War?

5.14. Other erroneous datings of the Trojan War

5.14.1. Phantom reflection of the Trojan War in the alleged III century A.D.

5.14.2. The Christian dating of the Trojan War

5.14.3. The datings of the Trojan War as offered by Hellanicus and Damastus

5.14.4. The Judean dating of the Trojan War

5.14.5. The Scaligerian dating of the Trojan War

5.15. The table of heroes who had fought in the XIII century war (Trojan = Tarquinian = Gothic) and their phantom doubles

6. The great triad of kings in Roman history: Sulla, Pompey and Caesar. The parallelism with the Trojan = Tarquinian = Gothic War

7. The rebellion of Spartacus as a vague and fragmented reflection of the Trojan = Tarquinian = Gothic War of the XIII century A.D.

8. A general picture of the 1053-year chronological shift

8.1. The identification of the First Roman Empire (Livy's Regal Rome) as the Third Roman Empire of the alleged III-VI century A.D. and the 1053-year shift

8.2. Identifying the Second Roman Empire as the Holy Roman Empire of the X-XIII century as well as the Habsburg Empire of the XIV-XVII century. Two shifts – of 1053 and 1400 years, respectively . 200 8.3. Empire of the X-XIII century. The parallelism between the X century war and the “ancient” Trojan = Tarquinian = Gothic War

8.4. The “ancient” Second Roman Empire in the X-XII century A.D. and the XIII-XVII century A.D.

8.5. Identifying the Third Roman Empire as the Holy Roman Empire of the X-XIII century as well as the Habsburg Empire of the XIV-XVII century. A 720-year shift and a 1053-year shift . 214 8.6. War of the XIII century as the original reflected in the “ancient” Trojan = Tarquinian = Gothic War

Chapter 3: Identifying “ancient” Greece as the mediaeval Greece of the XI-XVI century with the chronological shift of 1800 years taken into account

1. The Greek and the Biblical chronology

2. The legend of a woman (religion?) mortally insulted

3. The great “ancient” Greek colonization as the mediaeval crusades

4. Epoch of the tyrants

5. The Trojan War of the XIII century A.D. revisited. The version of Herodotus. The mediaeval Charles of Anjou identified as the Persian king Cyrus

6. Mediaeval traces of the “ancient” Homer in the XIII-XIV century. The famous mediaeval Saint-Omer clan

7. The famous rape of the Sabine women in the “ancient” Rome and the share-out of wives and daughters in early XIV century Greece. The foundation of Rome in Latinia and later the Italian Rome in the XIV century A.D.

7.1. The rape of the Sabines

7.2. The “ancient” Romulus and Remus are the grandchildren of Aeneas the Trojan and the founders of Rome in Latinia. This event apparently reflects the foundation of Rome in Italy at the end of the XIV century A.D.

7.3. A partial transplantation of the Romean history to the documents of Italian Rome from Constantinople in the XIV century A.D.

7.4. The original mediaeval tale of the foundation of Rome in XIV century Italy by Romulus and Remus

7.5. Frederic II of Sicily as the “ancient” Romulus?

8. The mediaeval Charles of Naples as the “ancient” King Cambyses

9. The mediaeval Frederick of Sicily as the “ancient” king Darius

10. Mediaeval Margaret as the “ancient” Mardonius

11. Mediaeval Matilda as the “ancient” Milthiades

12. The mediaeval Duke Walther as the “ancient” Xerxes the Great

13. The mediaeval 300 knights of Duke Jean de la Roche as the famous 300 Spartans of King Leonidas

14. The mediaeval war in Greece of 1374-1387 A.D. as the “ancient” Peloponnesian War

14.1. The three eclipses described by Thucydides

14.2. The congress in Greece. The beginning of the war

14.3. The mediaeval Navarrans as the “ancient” Spartans. The mediaeval Catalan state in Athens as the “ancient” Athenian state

14.4. The mediaeval Nerio as the “ancient” Lysander. The end of the Peloponnesian War

15. The date of Parthenon's construction, and the reason it was called the Temple of St. Mary

16. The mediaeval Gemisto Pleton as the “ancient” Plato

17. The mediaeval despotate of Mystras as the “ancient” Sparta

18. The Turkish Ottoman Empire as the “ancient” Macedon. Sultan Mohammed I as the “ancient” Philip II

19. The mediaeval siege of Constantinople (Byzantium) as the “ancient” siege of Byzantium

20. The fall of Byzantium as the end of “Classical” Greece in the alleged IV century B.C.

21. Amazingly similar volume graphs of “ancient” and mediaeval Greek “biographies”

Chapter 4: The superimposition of the Bible over the phantom and real Eurasian events of the Middle Ages after a shift of 1800 years

Introduction

1. Genesis 1-3. The tale of Adam and Eve. The fall and the banishment from Eden. These events of the XI-XVI century epoch were initially shifted by the chronologists into the VIII century B.C.

1.1. The description of the parallelism

1.2. Adam and Eve = Paris and Helen = Perseus and Andromeda = Jason and Medea = St. George and the princess

1.3. The apple shared by Adam and Eve as well as their “ancient” Greek duplicates Paris and Venus

2. Genesis 4-5. Cain and Abel, the murder of Abel and the separation of humanity into two nations. These events of the XI-XVI century A.D. were initially shifted to 753-520 B.C. by the chronologists

3. Genesis 6-9. The corruption of humanity. The deluge as punishment. Noah the Patriarch, the Ark, the Covenant and the Rainbow. These events of the XI-XVI century A.D. were initially shifted to 520-510 B.C. by the chronologists

4. Genesis 10. The offspring of the sons of Noah (Shem, Ham and Japhet). These events of the XI-XVI century A.D. were initially shifted into 510-82 B.C. by the chronologists

5. Genesis 11:1-9. The Tower of Babel. Confounded languages. The scattering of nations. These events of the XI-XVI century were initially shifted into the I century B.C. by the chronologists

6. Genesis 11:10-32. The offspring of Shem until Terah. These events of the XI-XVI century were initially shifted by the chronologists into the period between 82 B.C. and 217 or 250 A.D.

7. Genesis 12; 13:1. Early days of Abram, the struggle with the Pharaoh and the exodus from Egypt. These events of the XI-XVI century A.D. were initially shifted to 250-300 A.D. by the chronologists

8. Genesis 13:2-18; 14-38. Abram and Haran, the division into two kingdoms, Isaac, Esau, Jacob, Judas, and Joseph. These events of the XI-XVI century A.D. were initially shifted to 306-526 A.D. by the chronologists

9. Genesis 39-50. Exodus 1-14. Joseph, Moses, the war with the Pharaoh, the Exodus from Egypt and the defeat of Pharaoh’s army. These events of the XI-XVI century were initially shifted to 476-535 A.D. by the chronologists

10. Exodus 15-40. Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy and Joshua. The people of Israel: wandering and conquering the promised land. These events of the XI-XVI century A.D. had initially been shifted into 550-800 A.D. by the chronologists

10.1. Moses and Justinian

10.2. Joshua, Son of Nun, and Alexander the Great

10.3. Joshua, Alexander the Great and the Argonauts

10.4. Joshua identified as Charlemagne. The mediaeval Song of Roland as the account of the mediaeval wars described in the Bible as the campaigns of Joshua, son of Nun

11. The events from the book of Judges dating to the XII-XVI century A.D. had initially been shifted to the VII-IX century A.D. by the chronologists

11.1. The Biblical Moab and the mediaeval Moaviya

11.2. The Biblical Abimelech and the “ancient” warlord Pyrrhus were both killed by a woman. The weapon used in both cases was a stone that had inflicted a mortal cranial wound

12. Further events of the Judges epoch (the XII-XVI century A.D.), which were initially shifted to 900-924 A.D. by the chronologists

12.1. The war with the Benjamites as the Trojan (Gothic) War

12.2. The sacrifice of the Biblical Jephthah’s daughter as a reflection of the sacrifice of Iphigenia, Agamemnon’s daughter

13. The events of the XII-XVI century A.D. as described in Judges, Samuel, Ruth and the Kings were initially shifted into 925-1053 A.D. by the chronologists

13.1. Saul, David and Solomon vs. Sulla, Caesar and Pompey. The rape of the daughters of Shiloh as the rape of the Sabines

13.2. The Biblical Arc of the Covenant and the Mohammedan Qa’aba

13.3. Saul, David and Solomon. The Temple of Solomon as the Temple of Hagia Sophia in Czar-Grad

13.4. The Biblical queen of Sheba as the Russian Princess Olga

14. The history of the Kingdom of Judah of the XIII-XVI century A.D. had initially been shifted to the XI-XIII century A.D. by the chronologists

14.1. A reign duration superimposition of the Judaic kingdom and the Eastern, or Byzantine, part of the Third Roman Empire

14.2. The biographical parallelism between the Judean kingdom and the Third Roman Empire in the East

15. The end of the Kingdom of Judah and the Babylon Captivity were shifted into distant past by the Chronologists

16. The Biblical Babylonian captivity reflected as the Avignon captivity in the allegedly French and Roman mediaeval chronicles

17. Why the era of Hijrah (Hegira) is counted from the VII century A.D.

17.1. A brief overview

17.2. On the history of the Koran

17.3 The Biblical Ark and the Muslim Qa’aba

18. In re the Biblical books of Samuel, Kings and Chronicles

Annexes

1. The methods of discovering discrepancies in random processes and their application to the analysis of historical texts

2. The discovery of homogeneous and heterogeneous fragments inside Russian, Roman and Greek chronicles, as well as the Bible

1. Introduction

2. Discrepancies in Russian chronicles

3. Discrepancies in the works of Titus Livy and Baronius

4. Discrepancies in the “History” of Herodotus and the “History” of Tacitus

5. Discrepancies in the Bible

3. The authorial invariant in Russian literary texts. Its application: who was the real author of the “Quiet Don”?

Commentary by A. T. Fomenko

1. Introduction. A brief excursus into the history of the problem

2. The definition of an authorial invariant

3. Our approach. Samples and steps. The evolution of a parameter along the narrative

4. The experiment in action. The list of parameters studied

5. The list of authors and works studied

6. The calculation experiment

7. The results of the experiment

8. Function word usage frequency as the authorial invariant

9. Quantitative examples

10. The possible uses of the authorial invariant. Its potential for the discovery of plagiarisms

11. The statistical analysis of the works of M. A. Sholokhov. The authorial invariant of “The Quiet Don” is drastically different from the authorial invariant of all the other works written by M. A. Sholokhov

12. Observations of a secondary nature. Chronology and volume of Sholokhov’s publications

13. The analysis of several texts by F. D. Kryukov

14. A detailed table of function word distribution in M. A. Sholokhov’s texts

Bibliography to Annex 3

4. Literary and archaeological falsifications

1. Literary forgeries

2. Archaeological forgeries

Tables to Annex 2

1. The chapter volume function in the “History” of Herodotus

2. The chapter volume function in the Bible (standard canonical chapters)

The complete bibliography to the seven volumes

Author Bio
Fomenko, Anatoly Timofeevich. Born in 1945. Full Member (Academician) of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Full Member of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, Full Member of the International Higher Education Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Physics and Mathematics, Professor, Head of the Moscow State University Department of Mathematics and Mechanics. Solved the Plateau s Problem from the theory of minimal spectral surfaces. Author of the theory of invariants and topological classification of integrable Hamiltonian dynamic systems. Laureate of the 1996 National Premium in Mathematics of the Russian Federation for a cycle of works on the Hamiltonian dynamic system multitude invariance theory. Author of 180 scientific publications, 26 monographs and textbooks on mathematics, a specialist in geometry and topology, variational calculus, symplectic topology, Hamiltonian geometry and mechanics, computer geometry. Author of a number of books on the development of new empirico-statistical methods and their application to the analysis of historical chronicles as well as the chronology of antiquity and the Middle Ages.